Metal Painting and Coating Operations
Table of Contents Background Regulatory Overview Planning P2 Programs
Overview of P2 Surface Preparation
Characterizing a Facility
Conventional Paint Composition
General Description of
List of Tables
1. Common Solvents, Federal Regulatory Status
List of Figures
This manual is broken down into nine chapters as described below. Supporting case studies, tables, figures and appendices are also provided.
NEWMOA designed this manual for individuals who are involved in providing technical assistance to firms seeking information on P2 for paint and coating processes. NEWMOA believes that the information in this manual also would be useful for environmental inspectors and permit writers who are involved in regulatory compliance activities. Comments and suggestions from manual users on content and format are welcomed. Please take a moment and complete the evaluation form included with this document to help us with future versions of this manual and related manuals, or call NEWMOA at (617) 367-8558 to speak with us directly.
Using This Manual
This manual is designed to serve as a complete reference on P2 methods for paint and coating processes, however, it alone should not be used to advise companies on the selection of a particular coating system. The selection of a coating system depends on a number of application-specific factors, including the type of surface to be coated as well as the required performance characteristics of the coating. Companies that decide to adopt an alternative system should do so only after consultation with the appropriate coating and equipment vendors, and careful in-house analyses of the costs and benefits as well as technical feasibility of the alternative system.
The views expressed in this report do not necessarily reflect those of NEWMOA, NEWMOA member states, Waste Management and Research Center (WMRC), or U.S. EPA. Mention of any company, process, or product name should not be considered an endorsement by NEWMOA, NEWMOA member states, WMRC, or U.S. EPA.
NEWMOA is indebted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Pollution Prevention for its support for this project. The Northeast states provided additional in-kind support.
NEWMOA would also like to thank those who provided advice and assistance, especially those who volunteered on the peer review committee:
Alan Buckley, Massachusetts Office of Technical Assistance
Terri Goldberg, NEWMOA P2 Program Manager—Editor/Manager
NEWMOA welcomes users of this manual to cite and reproduce sections of it for use in providing assistance to companies. However, the Association requests that users cite the document whenever reproducing or quoting so that appropriate credit is give to original authors, NEWMOA and U.S. EPA. NEWMOA thanks you for cooperating with this request.
Northeast Waste Management Officials' Association
The Northeast Waste Management Officials' Association (NEWMOA) is a non-profit, nonpartisan, interstate governmental association. The membership is composed of state environmental agency directors of the hazardous waste, solid waste, waste site cleanup and pollution prevention programs in Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, Rhode Island, and Vermont.
NEWMOA's mission is to help states articulate, promote, and implement economically sound regional programs for the enhancement of environmental protection. The group fulfills this mission by providing a variety of support services that facilitate communication and cooperation among member states and between the states and EPA, and promote the efficient sharing of state and federal program resources.
NEWMOA was established by the governors of the New England states as an official interstate regional organization, in accordance with Section 1005 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The organization was formally recognized by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1986. It is funded by state membership dues and EPA grants.
NEWMOA established the Northeast States Pollution Prevention Roundtable (NE P2 Roundtable) in 1989 to enhance the capabilities of member state environmental officials to implement effective source reduction programs. The NE P2 Roundtable's program involves the following components: (1) managing a regional roundtable of state pollution prevention programs; (2) publishing a newsletter; (3) managing a resource center of books, reports, case studies, fact sheets, notices of upcoming meetings and conferences, and a list of P2 experts; (4) organizing training; and (5) conducting research and publishing reports and other documents. The resource center provides pollution prevention information to state and local government officials, the public, industry, and others. Funding for the NE P2 Roundtable is provided by the NEWMOA member states and the U.S. EPA. For more information contact: Terri Goldberg, NEWMOA, 129 Portland Street, 6th floor, Boston, MA 02114, (617) 367-8558 x302 (Phone); (617) 367-0449 (Fax); firstname.lastname@example.org (e-mail).
About This Manual
The Northeast Waste Management Officials' Association (NEWMOA) designed this manual to provide environmental assistance staff with a basic reference on the metal coatings process. The purpose of the manual is to enable assistance providers to rely on a single publication to jump start their research on pollution prevention for companies with which they are working. The manual is explicitly designed to be useful to assistance professionals with experience working with metal coating operations and those who have never before encountered this process. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Pollution Prevention Division funded this manual as a model of a comprehensive packet of pollution prevention (P2) information on a single industry.
The Northeast Waste Management Officials' Association designed this manual to provide information on P2 methods for paints and coatings processes. Specifically, the manual focuses on P2 methods for reducing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted during the coating of metal substrates. This manual stresses the use of low-VOC paints and coatings (i.e., high-solids, waterborne and powder coatings that contain lower solvent concentrations than conventional paints) as well as techniques that can increase transfer efficiency (i.e., the percentage of paints actually put on the part compared to the amount of paint used/sprayed). Methods for reducing the amount of solvents used during other stages of the coatings process, particularly surface preparation and equipment cleaning, also figure prominently.
NEWMOA collaborates with state and local environmental assistance programs in the Northeast; these programs have requested this manual to help them provide more efficient and effective help to the numerous companies with metal coating operations. Assistance providers have reported frustration with having to search databases for materials only to obtain a list of citations and case studies that they have to spend considerable time finding in order to provide information to their client companies. In addition, these officials rarely have the opportunity to check the accuracy of the information they find in databases to determine whether the material is still current. To avoid duplicating efforts and to ensure that the information companies receive is up-to-date and accurate, NEWMOA developed this manual as a model "synthesized" information packet that includes an exhaustive compilation and synthesis of existing materials on P2 for the metal coatings process.
To compile this manual, NEWMOA reviewed many books, articles, fact sheets, reports and guides on P2 for metal coatings operations. NEWMOA staff also sent a draft of the manual to more than 15 expert reviewers for their comments and suggestions. The result is an up-to-date compilation of information on P2 options for metal coatings. However, pollution prevention is a rapidly changing field, and all users should check with the various centers identified in Appendix A to determine whether any new information is available.