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UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN NO. 66 JANUARY, 1913 THE PROPERTIES OF SATURATED AND SUPERHEATED AMMONIA VAPOR BY G. A. GOODENOUGH, PROFESSOR OF THERMODYNAMICS, AND WM. EARL MOSHER, RESEARCH FELLOW IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING.* CONTENTS I. INTRODUCTION PAGE 1. H istorical R eview .............. ....................... . 5 2. Purpose of this Investigation .......... .............. . .... 7 3. Acknowledgm ent .............. ......................... 7 4. Notation........ ................................... 7 II. TABLES 5. Description of Tables ............. . ................. . 8 6. T ables ................. .................. .......... 9 1. Saturated Ammonia: Temperature Table............. 9 2. Saturated Ammonia: Pressure Table................. 14 3. Superheated Ammonia......................... . 20 4. Thermal Properties of Liquid Ammonia .............. 34 III. MOLLIER DIAGRAM 7. Description of Diagram ............................ . . . 36 8. Heat Content-Entropy Diagram ............... At end of book 9. U se of D iagram ........................................ 36 IV. BASIS OF THE TABLES 10. Absolute Temperature ............. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... 41 11. Mechanical Equivalent of Heat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 42 12. Pressure-Temperature Relation of Saturated Vapor......... 43 13. Specific Volume of the Liquid ........................... 54 *In the preparation of this bulletin, Professor Goodenough has exercised general supervision over the work and has furnished, for the most part, the analytical methods used in attacking the various problems. Mr. Mosher has applied these methods and correlated the experimental results. To him is due the selection of constants and the various discussions of the validity and accuracy of the formulas employed.-THE EDITOR.

2 CONTENTS PAGE 14. Latent Heat of Vaporization........................... 56 15. Specific Volume of Saturated Vapor..................... 61 16. Specific Volume of Liquid and Saturated Vapor at High Temperatures.................... ................. 62 17. Specific Volume of Superheated Vapor .................... 66 18. Specific Heat of Superheated Vapor ....................... 72 19. Heat Content of Saturated and Superheated Vapor......... 76 20. Heat Content of Liquid............................... 86 21. Entropy of Saturated and Superheated Vapor.............. 90 22. Computation of Tables............ . . . . . . . ............... . . . 90 V. BIBLIOGRAPHY LIST OF TABLES. 1. Saturated Ammonia Vapor: Temperature........................................... 9 2. Saturated Ammonia Vapor: Pressure............................................... 14 3. Saturated and Superheated Ammonia.............................................. 20 4. Thermal Properties of Liquid Ammonia at Saturation Pressure ........................ 34 5. Determinations of Ice-Point on Absolute Scale................................... . . 42 6. Calculations for Values of Fig. 1 ................................................ 48 7. Summary of Pressure-Temperature Determinations of Regnault........................ 50 8. Summary of Pressure-Temperature Determinations of Blilmcke........................ 51 9. Summary of Pressure-Temperature Determinations of Brill............................ 51 10. Summary of Pressure-Temperature Determinations of Davies.......................... 51 11. Summary of Pressure-Temperature Determinations of Faraday ........................ 51 12. Summary of Determinations of Critical Data for Ammonia........................... 52 13. Summary of Determinations of Critical Data for Water.............................. 53 14. Summary of Determinations of Volume of the Liquid by Lange........................ 55 15. Summary of Determinations of Volume of the Liquid by Dieterici...................... 56 16. Summary of Determinations of Volume of the Liquid by D'Andr6eff .................... 56 17. Summary of Various Determinations of the Latent Heat of Vaporization................ 59 18. Summary of Determinations of Volume of the Saturated Vapor by Dieterici ............ 62 19. The Law of the Straight Diameter for Ammonia................................... 64 20. Summary of Various Determinations of Volume of the Superheated Vapor ............. 68 21. Comparison of Values Obtained from Various Equations for Volume of the Superheated Vapor with Experimental Values............................................... 68 22. Comparison of Values Obtained from Equation (8) with Values Obtained from Equation (6) and the Clapeyron-Clausius Formula ........................................ 70 23. Summary of Regnault's PV Measurements Along the Isotherm for 46.58 Degrees F ...... 71 24. Summary of Determinations of Specific Heat at Constant Pressure as Given by Nernst... 74 25. Comparison of Values of Joule-Thomson Coefficient Resulting from Present Equations and Those Resulting from Wobsa's Equations with Wobsa's Experimental Values......... 80 26. Reduced Joule-Thomson Coefficients for Water Recalculated from Data Given by Davis.. 84 27. The Heat Content of Liquid as Deduced from the Experiments of Dieterici and Drewes... 87 28. Summary of Determinations of the Specific Heat of Liquid Ammonia .................. 89 LIST OF FIGURES. 1. Showing the Agreement of Pressures Found by the Temperature Ratio Law with those Found by Experim ent .... ............................ ...... .. .... ........... . 49 2. Showing the Agreement of Volumes of the Liquid as Calculated with those Found by E xperim ent........................... ....................................... 55 3. Showing Comparison Between Experimental Values for Latent Heat of Vaporization and Values as Calculated by Various W riters. ................. ....................... 60

2 CONTENTS
PAGE
14. Latent Heat of Vaporization........................... 56
15. Specific Volume of Saturated Vapor..................... 61
16. Specific Volume of Liquid and Saturated Vapor at High
Temperatures.................... ................. 62
17. Specific Volume of Superheated Vapor .................... 66
18. Specific Heat of Superheated Vapor ....................... 72
19. Heat Content of Saturated and Superheated Vapor......... 76
20. Heat Content of Liquid............................... 86
21. Entropy of Saturated and Superheated Vapor.............. 90
22. Computation of Tables............ . . . . . . . ............... . . . 90
V. BIBLIOGRAPHY
LIST OF TABLES.
1. Saturated Ammonia Vapor: Temperature........................................... 9
2. Saturated Ammonia Vapor: Pressure............................................... 14
3. Saturated and Superheated Ammonia.............................................. 20
4. Thermal Properties of Liquid Ammonia at Saturation Pressure ........................ 34
5. Determinations of Ice-Point on Absolute Scale................................... . . 42
6. Calculations for Values of Fig. 1 ................................................ 48
7. Summary of Pressure-Temperature Determinations of Regnault........................ 50
8. Summary of Pressure-Temperature Determinations of Blilmcke........................ 51
9. Summary of Pressure-Temperature Determinations of Brill............................ 51
10. Summary of Pressure-Temperature Determinations of Davies.......................... 51
11. Summary of Pressure-Temperature Determinations of Faraday ........................ 51
12. Summary of Determinations of Critical Data for Ammonia........................... 52
13. Summary of Determinations of Critical Data for Water.............................. 53
14. Summary of Determinations of Volume of the Liquid by Lange........................ 55
15. Summary of Determinations of Volume of the Liquid by Dieterici...................... 56
16. Summary of Determinations of Volume of the Liquid by D'Andr6eff .................... 56
17. Summary of Various Determinations of the Latent Heat of Vaporization................ 59
18. Summary of Determinations of Volume of the Saturated Vapor by Dieterici ............ 62
19. The Law of the Straight Diameter for Ammonia................................... 64
20. Summary of Various Determinations of Volume of the Superheated Vapor ............. 68
21. Comparison of Values Obtained from Various Equations for Volume of the Superheated
Vapor with Experimental Values............................................... 68
22. Comparison of Values Obtained from Equation (8) with Values Obtained from Equation
(6) and the Clapeyron-Clausius Formula ........................................ 70
23. Summary of Regnault's PV Measurements Along the Isotherm for 46.58 Degrees F ...... 71
24. Summary of Determinations of Specific Heat at Constant Pressure as Given by Nernst... 74
25. Comparison of Values of Joule-Thomson Coefficient Resulting from Present Equations and
Those Resulting from Wobsa's Equations with Wobsa's Experimental Values......... 80
26. Reduced Joule-Thomson Coefficients for Water Recalculated from Data Given by Davis.. 84
27. The Heat Content of Liquid as Deduced from the Experiments of Dieterici and Drewes... 87
28. Summary of Determinations of the Specific Heat of Liquid Ammonia .................. 89
LIST OF FIGURES.
1. Showing the Agreement of Pressures Found by the Temperature Ratio Law with those
Found by Experim ent .... ............................ ...... .. .... ........... . 49
2. Showing the Agreement of Volumes of the Liquid as Calculated with those Found by
E xperim ent........................... ....................................... 55
3. Showing Comparison Between Experimental Values for Latent Heat of Vaporization and
Values as Calculated by Various W riters. ................. ....................... 60