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Title:The effects of distraction on amount of food consumed, food preference, and satiety
Author(s):Liguori, Carli A.
Advisor(s):Nickols-Richardson, Sharon M.
Department / Program:Food Science & Human Nutrition
Discipline:Food Science & Human Nutrition
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
ingestive behavior
college students
food preference
Abstract:Distracted eating is the intentional consumption of a meal while engaged in a secondary activity to the extent that the significance or memory of the meal is diminished. Limited published studies suggest distracted eating leads to increased intake; however, results of the present study do not support previous findings. The present study also aimed to assess the effects of distraction of food preference and perceptions of satiety. A randomized controlled crossover study was conducted with 120 healthy adults (age: 20.2 ± 1.4 years; 57% female; 48% white). Participants were randomly assigned to begin in either the distracted (DIS, n=55) or non-distracted (NON, n=65) test condition. In both conditions, participants were provided with miniature quiche. In DIS, participants consumed quiche while playing a Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVIP) task. In NON, participants ate without any distraction. Plates were weighed before and after consumption. After a 30-minute rest period, participants were offered a snack of grapes and miniature cookies and given 5 minutes to eat as much as they liked. The food was removed, and participants completed an exit survey assessing satiety and enjoyment of the meal. After a 1-week washout period, participants completed the opposite condition. A repeated measures analysis of variance was conducted (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 23.0.0). Participants on average consumed 115.4 ± 5.5 g of quiche during DIS and 128.12 ± 4.4 g during NON. Those in DIS consumed significantly less (F(1, 117) = 11.78, p=.001). The relationship held when adjusting for initial condition (F(1, 117) = 28.786, p=.000) and gender (F(1, 116) = 30.441, p=.000). A significant interaction of initial condition was also detected (F(1, 117) = 19.689, p=.000). A repeated measures analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), controlling for initial condition and previous intake, was conducted to assess snack intake. Participants consumed 45.5 ± 11.1 g of grapes and 18.9 ± 12.4 g of cookies, on average. No significant difference in grape consumption (F(1, 113) = 1.366, p=.245) nor cookie consumption (F(1, 115) = 2.035, p=.156) was observed between groups. No significant difference in the proportion of grapes consumed (F(1, 113) = 1.632, p=.204) or proportion of cookies consumed (F(1, 115) = 1.682, p=.197) between groups was detected. An ANCOVA controlling for initial condition revealed a significant difference between groups for memory of quiche received (F(1, 116) = 30.737, p=.000) and memory of quiche consumed (F(1, 118) = 7.616, p=.007). Perceptions of satiety were measured using a 100mm Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). No statistically significant differences were observed between groups in perceptions of fullness (F(1, 109) = .600, p=.440), hunger (F(1, 109) = 1.213, p=.273), or enjoyment of the meal (F(1, 108) = 2.710, p=.103). Participants consumed significantly less food when distracted, on average. Memory of the meal was decreased when distracted, but no differences were observed in amount consumed or food preference at a future eating occasion. No difference in perceptions of satiety or enjoyment of the meal were observed. Findings may be due to testing distracted eating during breakfast, the novelty of the RVIP to participants, or the inclusion of male participants. Future research should aim to determine more conclusive results.
Issue Date:2018-04-12
Rights Information:Copyright 2018 Carli Liguori
Date Available in IDEALS:2018-09-04
Date Deposited:2018-05

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