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Title:Investigating the effect of yeast and mineral dietary supplements during the periparturient period on the production, physical health, and innate immune system of dairy cows
Author(s):Glosson, Kristen Michelle
Director of Research:Cardoso, Felipe C.
Doctoral Committee Chair(s):Drackley, James K.
Doctoral Committee Member(s):Murphy, Michael R.; Pan, Yuan-Xiang
Department / Program:Animal Sciences
Discipline:Animal Sciences
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Subject(s):Transition Dairy Cow Nutrition
Abstract:The periparturient period of a dairy cow is defined as the time when the cow goes from a state of near maintenance in late gestation to a rapid on-set of metabolic adaptation to meet the needs of lactation production. This homeorhetic phase requires the coordination of numerous hormones and tissues to mobilize fat for energy, stabilize mineral fluctuations such as calcium, and adjust the rumen environment to the change in diet. This transition is also the cause of common early postpartum cow disorders that result from compromised immune function and a lack of metabolite availability. Different dietary strategies through ration formulation or supplementing feed additives have been employed to mitigate these negative effects. The objectives of this dissertation were to: 1) investigate the effects of supplementing products derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae culture to the diet on transition cow production and health; 2) evaluate the effects of low-calcium vs. acidogenic strategies within controlled-energy dry cow diets on transition cow production and health; 3) compare the effects of these two nutritional techniques on periparturient innate immune functions; and 4) review applied feeding considerations of personnel and environmental factors that may impact ration variations. Supplementing Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the dry period did not impact milk production, but increased total protein and, specifically, globulin concentration in blood. It has been reported that short-term increases in acute phase proteins after calving, related to inflammation, may improve adaption to the higher energy lactation diet. Dry cow rations with a negative dietary cation-anion difference that resulted in an average urine pH of 5.5 to 6.0 resulted in greater ionized calcium during the first 24 h after calving along with greater intake and milk production postpartum. Neither dietary strategy consistently impacted the innate immune factors tested. Overall calcium status after calving failed to predict the in vitro innate immune cell reactions to a bacterial challenge in whole blood collected from cows on either study. An analysis of the variation in total ration composition indicated that experience of the feeder may play a role in reducing the error of loading individual ingredients used to make the final total mixed ration. Taken together, these data help to inform decisions on dietary strategies and the effects of feed mixing variation in transition cow programs.
Issue Date:2018-07-13
Rights Information:Copyright 2018 Kristen Glosson
Date Available in IDEALS:2018-09-27
Date Deposited:2018-08

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