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Title:Use of feed technology to improve nutritional value of feed ingredients fed to pigs
Author(s):Rodriguez Caro, Diego
Advisor(s):Stein, Hans H.
Contributor(s):Ellis, Michael; Casas, Gloria A
Department / Program:Animal Sciences
Discipline:Animal Sciences
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Degree:M.S.
Genre:Thesis
Subject(s):pigs, feed technology, extrusion, pelleting
Abstract:Four studies were conducted to determine nutrient digestibility of feed ingredients and the effect of feed technology on the nutritional value of feed ingredients or diets fed to pigs. In study 1, two experiments were conducted to determine the digestibility of AA and concentrations of DE and ME in 2 sources of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) that have different oil contents. Dakota Gold DDGS that was low in fat and a conventional DDGS were evaluated as feed ingredients for growing pigs. Results of this study indicated that Dakota Gold DDGS had greater (P < 0.05) standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and Lys compared with conventional DDGS. The SID of most other AA was also greater (P < 0.05) or tended to be greater (P < 0.10) in Dakota Gold than in conventional DDGS with the exception of Trp, Cys, Pro, and Ser. The ATTD of NDF, ADF, and AEE was greater (P < 0.01) in conventional DDGS than in Dakota Gold DDGS, but there was no difference in the ATTD of GE between the 2 sources of DDGS. Study 2, was conducted to determine the effects of including Dakota Gold or conventional DDGS in diets that were fed in meal form or in a pelleted form to pigs from weaning to market on growth performance and carcass characteristics. Diets were formulated based on digestibly values for AA and energy obtained from the previous study. Results for this study indicated that for the overall nursery phase, feeding meal diets instead of pelleted diets increased (P < 0.001) ADFI and decreased (P < 0.05) G:F. However, no difference between the 2 sources of DDGS were observed on average daily gain of weanling pigs. For the entire growing-finishing period, the source of DDGS did not affect average daily gain of pigs, but pigs fed meal diets had reduced (P < 0.001) G:F compared with pigs fed the pelleted diets. There were no differences in carcass characteristics between pigs fed diets containing Dakota Gold DDGS or conventional DDGS. However, 10th rib back fat was greater (P = 0.018) for pigs fed pelleted diets than for pigs fed meal diets. There were also tendencies for lower HCW (P = 0.091) and greater fat-free lean percentage (P = 0.064) for pigs fed meal diets compared with pigs fed pelleted diets. In study 3, two experiments were conducted to determine effects of extrusion on energy and nutrient digestibility in yellow dent corn, wheat, and sorghum fed to growing pigs. Results for this study indicated that extruded grains had greater (P < 0.001) apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of starch than non-extruded grains. Extrusion also increased SID of CP and all AA except Pro in corn, but the SID of CP and AA in wheat and sorghum was not affected by extrusion (interaction, P < 0.05). The ATTD of GE was increased by extrusion of corn or sorghum, but that was not the case for wheat (interaction, P < 0.001). The ATTD of NDF in wheat was reduced by extrusion, but that was not the case for corn and sorghum (interaction, P < 0.001), but extrusion reduced (P < 0.05) the ATTD of ADF in all grains. Extrusion increased DE and ME in corn and sorghum compared with non-extruded grains, but there was no increase in DE and ME when wheat was extruded (interaction, P < 0.001). In study 4, two experiments were conducted to determine effects of extrusion on energy and AA digestibility in soybean hulls fed to growing pigs. Results for this study indicated that extrusion of soybean hulls did not change AID or SID of CP and most AA with the exception that the AID for Leu, Phe, Asp, Ser, and Tyr in the non-extruded soybean hulls was less than in extruded soybean hulls. The ATTD of GE and values for DE and ME in soybean hulls were not improved by extrusion. Likewise, extrusion did not change the concentration of total dietary fiber in soybean hulls. In conclusion, use of pelleting or extrusion in feed ingredients or diets may be used to improve nutrient and energy digestibility by pigs, but effects are not consistent across all feed ingredients.
Issue Date:2019-03-15
Type:Text
URI:http://hdl.handle.net/2142/104759
Rights Information:Copyright 2019 Diego Rodriguez
Date Available in IDEALS:2019-08-23
Date Deposited:2019-05


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