|Abstract:||The objectives were to analyze the effects of housing cow-calf pairs in dry lots (DL) or pasture (PAST) on cow performance and reproduction and calf performance and behavior through the receiving phase. Simmental × Angus (n = 108; 87 ± 11.5 d postpartum) spring-calving cows were stratified by age, BW, BCS and calf sex and allotted to six groups. Cows were limit-fed a high energy ration to meet protein and energy requirements. Calves had ad libitum access to the same diet in an adjacent pen. Pairs on PAST were rotationally grazed with free-choice mineral. On d 0, cows were synchronized and artificially inseminated (AI). On d 0, 33, 55, and 90, BW and BCS were measured. Cow AI and overall pregnancy were determined on d 33 and 90, respectively. On d 55, milk production was determined using the weigh-suckle-weigh technique. At the age 87, 142, 177, 198 and 219 ± 11.5 d, calf BW was measured. Hair coat score (HCS) and dirty score (DS) were measured on d 0 and d 90. After weaning (177 ± 11.5 d of age) all calves were fed a diet consisting of corn silage, wet distiller grains, dry rolled corn and grass hay during the receiving phase (42 d). Calf behavior was observed after feedlot arrival. Average daily gain, DMI and feed efficiency were evaluated during the receiving phase. The data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Reproductive data were analyzed using GLIMMIX procedure of SAS. On d 0 and 33, cow BW did not differ (P ≥ 0.38). On d 55, DL cows (682.8 kg) tended (P = 0.07) to have greater BW than PAST cows (654.0 kg). On d 90, DL cows (660.4 kg) had greater BW (P = 0.05) than PAST cows (628.6 kg). The BCS, milk yield and reproductive rates did not differ (P ≥ 0.12). Dry-lot calves had greater (P < 0.01) BW and ADG prior to weaning. Calves from PAST had lower (P < 0.01) DS and HCS was not different (P ≥ 0.22) at weaning. Upon feedlot arrival, more (P < 0.01) DL calves were walking and had increased (P < 0.01) vocalizations. Calves from PAST had greater (P < 0.01) ADG, DMI as a percent of BW, and gain:feed than DL calves during the receiving phase. Housing pairs in dry lots increased cow BW but did not affect BCS, milk production, and reproduction. Calves raised in a dry lot had greater BW and ADG prior to weaning, but PAST calves had fewer behavioral signs of stress and greater growth performance in the feedlot through the receiving phase.