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Title:Individual differences in affect and vagal tone in response to moderate- and high-intensity interval exercise: A preliminary model
Author(s):Box, Allyson G
Advisor(s):Petruzzello, Steven J
Contributor(s):Feito, Yuri; Zenko, Zachary
Department / Program:Kinesiology & Community Health
Discipline:Kinesiology
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Degree:M.S.
Genre:Thesis
Subject(s):Heart Rate Variability
Valence
Personality
Physical Activity
Abstract:Background. Evidence suggests regular exercise, amongst other healthy lifestyle choices, promotes enhanced quality of life and longevity. However, the majority of adults (>85%) do not meet the requirements suggested by the U.S. Physical Activity Guidelines, thus missing out on potential benefits. Some researchers have proposed the lack of continued exercise behavior is a result of negative affective responses associated with exercising, and suggest individuals must feel good (e.g., experience pleasure) during and following (e.g., enjoyment) exercise in order to increase the likelihood of future engagement. Promising evidence to support the application of the exercise-affect-adherence relationship has emerged. However, a conundrum exists: high-intensity training programs have gained, and are maintaining, popularity, even though these often result in negative feeling states, which should decrease likelihood of adherence to such regimens. It is possible some individuals are more suited for high-intensity exercise; that is, they are predisposed to experience more pleasure or less displeasure during high-intensity exercise leading to a desire for continued future engagement. Purpose. To examine affective and vagal tone reactivity to and recovery from an acute bout of moderate-intensity (MIIE) and high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE), and to consider how individual differences (e.g., personality, biological dispositions) influence these responses. Methods. Participants (N= 25, 13 females, 23.3±4.0 yrs, BMI= 25.7±4.1 kg·m-2, HRrest= 68.12±11.66 b·min-1, VO2peak= 41.57±9.42 ml·kg-1·min-1) completed 4 sessions at the same time of day on different days, with at least 24-hours between each session. Refraining from exercise (24-hours prior), caffeine (8-hours prior), and alcohol (12-hours prior), participants completed a baseline session to record resting affect and cardiac vagal tone. Personality, regulation-style, and emotional complaints (i.e., Anxiety, Depression, and Stress) were also assessed via questionnaire. Participants completed a graded exercise test on a stationary bike (cycle ramp protocol 25 W·min-1) to volitional exhaustion during the second session, where peak oxygen consumption, peak heart rate, and oxygen consumption at ventilatory threshold (VT) were determined. Based on individual workload at VT, a relative high- (5% below relative load at VT) and moderate-intensity (25% below relative load at VT) load was determined for sessions 3 and 4. Participants then completed a high- (HIIE) and moderate-intensity interval exercise (MIIE) session (5 intervals of 3-min of exercise to 1-min of rest) where affect and vagal tone were recorded prior to, during, and up to 30-minutes post exercise. The HIIE and MIIE sessions were randomized and counterbalanced in order to control for pre-exercise states. In addition, participants were blinded to the condition intensities. Results. Participants reported more negative feeling states and experienced greater vagal tone withdrawal during the HIIE session compared to the MIIE session, but these states recovered similarly as early as 5-minutes post-exercise. In addition, individual characteristics (i.e., fitness), traits (e.g., Extraversion, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism), emotional complaints (i.e., Depression, Anxiety, and Stress), and biological dispositions (e.g., tonic vagal tone) provided predictive variance on affective reactivity (i.e., valence) during the HIIE session. This suggests some individuals are predisposed to respond more positively to high-intensity exercise. Conclusions. These findings indicate that some individuals may thrive (i.e., initiate and adhere) in a high-intensity exercise program, while others are more likely to experience displeasure and potentially drop-out. In order to optimize exercise programming, or simply encourage exercise behavior, it is important to consider each individual’s unique set of characteristics at exercise initiation.
Issue Date:2019-07-09
Type:Text
URI:http://hdl.handle.net/2142/105653
Rights Information:Copyright 2019 Allyson Box
Date Available in IDEALS:2019-11-26
Date Deposited:2019-08


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