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Title:An exploration into the use of online instruction in secondary physical education
Author(s):Killian, Chad M.
Director of Research:Woods, Amelia M.
Doctoral Committee Chair(s):Woods, Amelia M.
Doctoral Committee Member(s):Graber, Kim C.; Templin, Thomas; Carlson, Kristin N.
Department / Program:Kinesiology & Community Health
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Abstract:Online and blended instruction have emerged as popular teaching methods within the K-12 environment. The asynchronous characteristics of these methods represent potential for overcoming traditional barriers to quality physical education. Therefore, the objectives of this study were: (1) to systematically review literature and commentary related to the use of online instruction in K-12 physical education, (2) to examine secondary physical education teachers’ acceptance and use of online instruction in their classes, and (3) to explore students’ habits of use and perceptions of using online instruction as part of their physical education experience. The purpose of the systematic, scoping review was to provide a comprehensive overview of research, commentary, and practical articles related to the use of these methods in K-12 physical education. PRISMA-ScR guidelines directed the review, and five databases were searched for English-language articles. A total of 24 articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Of these, 14 were research-based, and 10 were commentary or practical articles. Most related research has been conducted in secondary school environments. Minimal learning-related outcomes were reported across studies. Evidence provided in commentary and practical articles was largely anecdotal and based on research from other subject areas. Therefore, systematic research related to the design, adoption, and implementation of online and blended instruction in physical education is warranted. A qualitative descriptive study was conducted to understand teachers’ acceptance and use of an online instructional system. Twenty-eight secondary physical education teachers participated in in-depth phone interviews. Main categories were identified following inductive and deductive analysis using the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology as the guiding framework, which served to validate the use of the theory within the secondary physical education context. Teachers noted how the system provided value to their program and teaching by allowing the delivery of added, quality content outside the temporal confines of their classes (Performance Expectancy). They generally expressed efficient and successful implementation, despite limited related experience and professional development (Effort Expectancy). School technology infusion initiatives largely drove the adoption of online learning for most of the participants; however, the reliable support they received from the online system developer was a key influential factor associated with continued use (Facilitating Conditions). Ultimately, price determined sustained use, which was dictated by school administrators (Price Value). A separate qualitative descriptive study was conducted to understand students’ usage habits and perceptions of the same online physical education instructional system. A total of 37 9th-grade students from one rural school district participated in face-to-face interviews during their physical education classes. Main categories were identified following inductive and deductive analysis, which also used the UTAUT as the guiding framework. Responses indicated students used district provided Chromebooks, likely due to a district policy that inhibits cell phone use during the school day. They completed the online physical education modules whenever and wherever they perceived to have time, which was usually prior to the beginning of the school-day or in study hall. The quality of engagement with the system was low and mostly due to students' viewing their achievement in physical education as a low priority compared to their performance in other classes. A key contributing factor to students' low perception of the system was a perceived disconnect between movement-based physical education and the required sedentary online learning experiences. It was clear students did not understand why they needed to engage with online learning as part of their physical education course. One possible explanation for students’ lack of clarity regarding the purpose and value of the supplementary instruction may be limited teacher involvement with the system, as expressed by students. Overall findings of this research support the potential for physical education teacher acceptance and use of supplemental online instruction in combination with their traditional physical education curriculum. Student acceptance and use may be related to overall perceptions of the value of physical education and may be influenced by teacher implementation procedures or lack thereof. Further research into student and teacher acceptance and use of online learning in physical education within different contexts and with different online instructional systems is warranted.
Issue Date:2019-07-09
Rights Information:Copyright 2019 Chad Killian
Date Available in IDEALS:2019-11-26
Date Deposited:2019-08

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