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Title:Momentum-space lattices for ultracold atoms
Author(s):Meier, Eric J.
Director of Research:Gadway, Bryce
Doctoral Committee Chair(s):DeMarco, Brian
Doctoral Committee Member(s):Hughes, Taylor L.; Kuehn, Seppe
Department / Program:Physics
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Subject(s):physics, amo, atomic, molecular, optical, quantum, gas, gases, bose, einstein, condensate, Bose--Einstein condensate, BEC, momentum-space, lattice, momentum, space, Su, Schrieffer, Heeger, SSH, topology, soliton, topological, anderson, insulator, TAI, counter-diabatic, shortcut, to, adiabaticity, Bryce, Gadway, Andor, Neo, offset, lock, square, coils, feshbach, bragg scattering, quantum simulation
Abstract:As the progress of science pushes the frontiers of studying nature to both the extremely large scale and the incredibly small scale, experiments can become increasingly difficult to perform. Therefore, a scale model experiment for these kinds of physics can be useful as long as it is relatively easy to access and control. This is the idea of quantum simulation, where one system exactly mimics another when they are subjected to equivalent physical scenarios. Topological systems, those with a property that is stabilized by their specific configuration, are often quite challenging to experimentally probe. Therefore, test bed systems have been widely and successfully applied to studying topology in an effort to advance the field, which promises enticing applications such as robust quantum technology. Our particular scheme uses a novel type of "synthetic" dimension for atoms of a Bose–Einstein condensate, which we call a momentum-space lattice, to emulate one-dimensional lattice models. The idea of a synthetic dimension or synthetic lattices is a useful construct to describe how the particle dynamics can evolve in degrees of freedom that are not directly related to transport in real space. This can relate to population dynamics in an internal degree of freedom, such as spin, or, in our case, in the dynamics of free-particle-like atomic momentum states. We expose a Bose–Einstein condensate to two laser fields that are capable of driving transitions between different momentum states of the condensate atoms through a two-photon Bragg diffraction process. Neighboring states in the free-particle dispersion relation are characterized by a unique momenta and energy spacing such that we can independently control every aspect of their coupling. In this thesis, we report on the design and construction of an apparatus for the production of 87Rb Bose–Einstein condensates as well as the partial construction of an apparatus for the production of 39K Bose–Einstein condensates. We also discuss the experimental realization of, and theoretical background for, our momentum-space lattice. Using the momentum-space lattice, we perform experiments on not only topological systems, but also on driven artificial spins featuring chaotic dynamics, as well as faster-than-adiabatic quantum state control and preparation. Our measurements of topological systems are based in the 1D Su–Schrieffer–Heeger model, where we report on the direct observation of the localized, solitonic edge state created by the topology inherent in the system. Through the addition of exactly tunable tunneling disorder, we observe the destruction of the band topology due to disorder at a random-singlet transition. Furthermore, we drive a trivial system into a topological phase through the addition of disorder, observing a counter-intuitive phenomenon known as the topological Anderson insulator for the first time. We go on to report on our driven, tunable spin experiment, where we probe effective spin "squeezing" (in the absence of any entanglement in our noninteracting system), the out-of-time-ordered correlation function, and chaos. And finally, we use our momentum-space lattice to demonstrate a technique which allows a system to be transformed faster than the adiabatic limit with no diabatic transitions in a highly non-trivial regime. Due to the versatility of the momentum-space lattice, the results detailed here have a broad impact. Our observations of topological phenomena in elementary and canonical 1D systems are some of the first experimental verifications of long-standing predictions. Further, our studies of the interplay between classical chaos and quantum systems may help shed light on this complex and rich problem. And from a more "applied science" perspective, our demonstrations of generalized counter-diabatic techniques are widely beneficial and applicable to many systems where adiabaticity is challenged.
Issue Date:2019-11-19
Rights Information:Copyright 2019 by Eric J. Meier. All rights reserved.
Date Available in IDEALS:2020-03-02
Date Deposited:2019-12

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