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Title:Evaluation of the nutritional values of seven insect meals for inclusion in poultry diets
Author(s):Matin, Nahal
Advisor(s):Parsons, Carl M
Department / Program:Animal Sciences
Discipline:Animal Sciences
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Degree:M.S.
Genre:Thesis
Subject(s):insect meals
poultry
nutrition
animal sciences
amino acid digestibility
metabolizable energy
rooster assay
Abstract:Eight experiments were conducted to determine the nutrient composition, metabolizable energy content, P digestibility/bioavailability, and amino acid digestibility of different insect meals. The first six experiments were precision-fed rooster assays to determine TMEn in conventional roosters or amino acid digestibility in cecectomized roosters. The roosters were precision-fed 25 to 30 g of one of seven insect meals which included three different black soldier fly larvae meals (BSFL), one partially-defatted BSFL, one cricket meal, and two different mealworms. The cricket meal was the only insect meal that was mixed with corn such that a mixture of 15 g cricket meal and 15 g corn was precision-fed. Nutrient analysis was also conducted on these insect meals, and large variability was observed in the nutrient composition among different insect meals. The crude protein varied from 44-54% among the four BSFL, was 64% for the cricket meal, and varied from 49 to 53% for the two mealworms. Total P content of the insect meals ranged from 0.7-1% and Ca ranged from 0.04-3.5%, with the BSFL meals having the highest values for Ca in comparison with the other insect meals. The TMEn of the insect meals ranged from 3561-5273 kcal/kg DM. The BSFL 1, 2, and 3 averaged 4079 kcal/kg DM, whereas the TMEn of the mealworms was numerically higher at 5199 kcal/kg DM. Amino acid digestibility values were generally high for the four BSFL and two mealworms at 85-95%, and slightly lower for cricket meal. Cysteine had the lowest digestibility value in most of the insect meals in comparison with the other amino acids. The results of these six rooster assays indicated that insect meals contain high levels of TMEn and digestible amino acids for poultry. The last two experiments (7 and 8) conducted were chick assays. Experiment 7 aimed to determine ileal P digestibility and excreta P retention values for two BSFL samples (BSFL 1 and 3) and partially-defatted BSFL. Three dextrose-cornstarch based diets consisting of 27%, 30%, and 30% of BSFL 1, BSFL 3, and partially-defatted BSFL, respectively, were fed to broiler chicks from 19 to 22 days of age. At 22 days of age, ileal digesta and excreta were collected. Ileal P digestibility was 87%, 75%, and 88% for BSFL 1, BSFL 3, and partially-defatted BSFL, respectively. Excreta P retention was similar at 87%, 73%, and 85% for BSFL 1, BSFL 3, and partially-defatted BSFL, respectively. The objective of Experiment 8 was to determine the relative bioavailability of P in BSFL 1, BSFL 3, and partially-defatted BSFL relative to KH2PO4 using a chick bone ash bioassay. Nine dextrose-cornstarch-SBM based diets consisting of one P-deficient diet, and two diets containing increasing levels of KH2PO4, BSFL 1, BSFL 3, or partially-defatted BSFL were fed to chicks from 8 to 22 days of age. The slope-ratio method using multiple-regression was used to calculate the relative bioavailability of P based on tibia ash. Values for BSFL 1, BSFL 3, and partially-defatted BSFL were 54%, 51%, and 57%, respectively, relative to KH2PO4. The lower relative P bioavailability values compared with the ileal P digestibility and excreta P retention values may be due to higher Ca content of the diets used in the P bioavailability experiment.
Issue Date:2019-10-14
Type:Text
URI:http://hdl.handle.net/2142/106320
Rights Information:Copyright 2019 Nahal Matin
Date Available in IDEALS:2020-03-02
Date Deposited:2019-12


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