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Title:Physical, chemical and biological controls on the origin, crystallization and dissolution of human kidney stones
Author(s):Saw, Jessica Jia-Wen
Director of Research:Fouke, Bruce W
Doctoral Committee Chair(s):Fouke, Bruce W; Sweedler, Jonathan V
Doctoral Committee Member(s):Nelson, Erik R; Tsai, Nien-Pei
Department / Program:Molecular & Integrative Physl
Discipline:Molecular & Integrative Physi
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Degree:Ph.D.
Genre:Dissertation
Subject(s):nephrolithiasis
urolithiasis
kidney stones
microscopy
geobiology
biomineralization
Abstract:Kidney stones are mineral deposits in the renal system that afflict 1 in 11 people worldwide and the incidence and prevalence is increasing globally. Over 70% of stones are composed of calcium oxalate and other mineralogies include struvite, brushite, and apatite. Currently, stones are thought to be relatively insoluble mineral deposits that undergo few physical, chemical and biological post-depositional changes (diagenesis) such as dissolution and recrystallization. Furthermore, with the exception of struvite mineralogy, stones are generally considered sterile and microbial influences on stone formation are nil. This is in contrast to rock deposits in the natural environment, such as hot springs and coral reefs, where diagenesis and microbially-mediated mineral crystallization and dissolution processes are ubiquitous. In the current dissertation, a new multidisciplinary approach combining geology, biology, urology and microscopy (GeoBioMed) applies advanced optical microscopy techniques (e.g., brightfield, polarization, confocal and super-resolution auto-fluorescence) and geoscience concepts (e.g., Law of Superposition, paragenesis, diagenesis, microbial protein catalysis) to evaluate kidney stones in the context of renal physiology and mineral stratigraphy. Results indicate that kidney stones are composed of intricate crystalline architectures that entomb a well-preserved bacterial and fungal community during multiple repeated cycles of crystallization, dissolution and recrystallization. An estimated >80% of any given stone has been dissolved and reformed in vivo and the extensive diagenetic alteration that takes place establishes kidney stone formation as a natural continuum of mineralogical reactions events. By integrating newly developed technologies and geoscience concepts and approaches, the work from this dissertation has resulted in a new synthesis for stone pathophysiology that identifies multiple specific unexpected therapeutic targets for the prevention and treatment of kidney stone disease.
Issue Date:2020-05-08
Type:Thesis
URI:http://hdl.handle.net/2142/108172
Rights Information:Copyright 2020 Jessica Saw
Date Available in IDEALS:2020-08-26
Date Deposited:2020-05


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