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Title:The effects of thermally abused frying oil polar fraction on breast cancer motility and proliferation in vitro
Author(s):Joyce, Kate
Advisor(s):Helferich, William
Contributor(s):Engeseth, Nicki; Madak-Erdogan, Zeynep
Department / Program:Food Science & Human Nutrition
Discipline:Food Science & Human Nutrition
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Subject(s):Breast Cancer, In Vitro, Frying Oil, Diet, Metastasis, Proliferation, Migration
Abstract:Dietary factors have been thought to play a role in approximately 35% of cancers in Western countries. In the United States, 1 in 8 women will be diagnosed with Breast cancer (BC) in their lifetime. Epidemiological studies have shown that consumption of processed (fried, cured, cooked) foods may increase the risk of developing BC. The overall objective of this thesis was to collect thermally abused frying oil (TAFO), separate the TAFO polar fraction (TAFO-PF), and investigate the impact of the TAFO-PF on mammary carcinoma cells in vitro. The typical American consumes approximately 2,000 kilocalories per day, with approximately 33% of calories derived from fat. It is estimated that Americans consume approximately 6.3% of their total calories and 19% of their fat calories from frying oil that was absorbed into food during the frying process. High heat combined with intermittent use and the release of water from food contributes to the progression of frying oil into TAFO. Previous animal studies assessed the effects of deteriorated dietary frying oil on late-stage BC and showed that BC metastasis is partly promoted by the chemical alterations occurring in oil during high-temperature frying. It is important to investigate the effect of TAFO on late-stage BC because of the implications of active dietary components within deteriorated frying oil on late-stage survivors. Our central hypothesis was that TAFO-PF impacts BC cell migration and proliferation. To test this hypothesis, we proposed two specific aims. The first specific aim was to evaluate the formation of polar components in TAFO during repeated frying of fish. This involved repeated deep-frying of breaded catfish nuggets in soybean frying oil under controlled conditions, collection of oil samples at various intervals, determination of total polar compounds, and separation of the polar fraction from TAFO for use in in vitro experiments. The total polar compounds in TAFO were determined by spectrophotometric absorption of oil at 490 nm wavelength. The polar fraction from TAFO was separated by column chromatography using silica gel. The second specific aim was to evaluate the impact of the TAFO-PF on mammary carcinoma cells in vitro, including the impact on 4T1 cell migration and proliferation. Wound healing and transwell migration assays were conducted to assess the effects of TAFO-PF on cell migration and proliferation assays were used to measure proliferation. The major findings in this thesis were: (1) Continuous high-temperature deep-frying increased the total polar compounds in frying oil used to deep-fry breaded catfish fish nuggets. As the amount of time of frying increased, represented as frying cycles, the absorption of ail at 490 nm increased which was correlated to an increase in total polar compounds. (2) TAFO-PF increases 4T1 cell migration in vitro. (3) TAFO-PF does not significantly alter 4T1 cell proliferation in vitro. In conclusion, this thesis demonstrated the accumulation of total polar compounds in deep-frying oil as the time of high temperature frying increased and that TAFO-PF alters BC cell behavior in vitro.
Issue Date:2020-05-15
Rights Information:Copyright 2020 Kate Joyce
Date Available in IDEALS:2020-08-27
Date Deposited:2020-05

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