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Title:Defining feline brachycephaly and benefits of ala vestibuloplasty in the brachycephalic cat
Author(s):Gleason, Hadley Eliza
Advisor(s):Phillips, Heidi
Contributor(s):Fries, Ryan; Gutierrez Nibeyro, Satiago
Department / Program:Vet Clinical Medicine
Discipline:VMS-Veterinary Clinical Medcne
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
brachycephalic syndrome
Abstract:Experiment 1: Objective: To compare respiratory, gastrointestinal, sleep, and activity-related parameters of brachycephalic (BC) and non-BC cats Sample: 194 BC and 1003 non-BC cats Procedures: Owners identified cats as BC or non-BC by breed and volunteered to complete an online questionnaire characterizing their cats’ symptoms and behaviors and including questions regarding respiratory, gastrointestinal, sleep, and activity parameters. Individual answers were scored based on clinical severity using a numeric scale and summed to give a total score. Results: Brachycephalic cats had increased odds of higher frequencies of sneezing, nasal discharge, and snoring, a greater volume of ocular discharge, more difficulty with prehension, more frequent episodes of dyspnea, less time engaged in physical activity time before becoming dyspneic, slower recovery from activity, and increased lethargy. Owners of BC cats were less likely to report vomiting than owners of non-BC cats. The median clinical severity score was significantly higher for BC cats than for non-BC cats. Conclusion and Clinical Relevance: Brachycephalic cats have an increased risk for the development of respiratory, gastrointestinal, and activity-related symptoms compared to non-BC cats. These symptoms may be signs of illness, and prospective studies are required to determine the clinical implications of these findings. As with BC dogs, surgical and medical interventions have the potential to mitigate the negative impact of BC conformation on the health and habits of cats. Experiment 2: Objective: To evaluate the health of brachycephalic (BC) cats and effects of ala vestibuloplasty on cardiopulmonary and lifestyle parameters Sample: Eight BC cats Procedures: Cats were prospectively enrolled and assessed preoperatively by cardiac biomarkers (cardiac troponin-I [cTnI] and N-terminal-pro brain natriuretic peptide [NT ProBNP]), contrast echocardiography, airway computed tomography (CT), endoscopy, and a standardized owner questionnaire. Ala vestibuloplasty was performed and cardiac biomarkers, contrast echocardiography, CT, and answers to owner questionnaires were re-evaluated 8-12 weeks postoperatively. Results: Preoperatively, all cats had stenotic nares, a prolonged normalized pulmonary artery transit time (nPTT), and a hyperattenuating pulmonary pattern. No complications occurred following surgery, and all cats improved in owner assessment of respiratory and activity parameters. Significant decreases were noted in nPTT and frequency of open-mouth breathing and snoring. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance: Stenotic nares are the predominant airway abnormality of BC cats, and BC cats suffer from similar CT abnormalities and lifestyle issues as BC dogs. Ala vestibuloplasty is a safe procedure that improves nPTT and frequency of open-mouth breathing and snoring in BC cats.
Issue Date:2020-12-10
Rights Information:Copyright 2020 Hadley Gleason
Date Available in IDEALS:2021-03-05
Date Deposited:2020-12

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