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Title:Models of Technology Transfer for Genome-Editing Technologies
Author(s):Graff, Gregory D.; Sherkow, Jacob S.
Subject(s):technology transfer
genome editing
CRISPR
patents
licenses
Abstract:Many of the fundamental inventions of genome editing, including meganucleases, zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and CRISPR, were first made at universities and patented to encourage commercial development. This gave rise to a diversity of technology transfer models but also conflicts among them. Against a broader historical and policy backdrop of university patenting and special challenges concerning research tools, we review the patent estates of genome editing and the diversity of technology transfer models employed to commercialize them, including deposit in the public domain, open access contracts, material transfer agreements, nonexclusive and exclusive licenses, surrogate licenses, and aggregated licenses. Advantages are found in this diversity, allowing experimentation and competition that we characterize as a federalism model of technology transfer. A notable feature of genome editing has been the rise and success of third-party licensing intermediaries. At the same time, the rapid pace of development of genome-editing technology is likely to erode the importance of patent estates and licensing regimes and may mitigate the effect of overly broad patents, giving rise to new substitutes to effectuate commercialization.
Issue Date:2020-04-09
Publisher:Annual Review of Genomics & Human Genetics
Citation Info:Gregory D. Graff & Jacob S. Sherkow, Models of Technology Transfer for Genome-Editing Technologies
Genre:Article
Type:Text
Language:English
URI:http://hdl.handle.net/2142/110346
DOI:10.1146/annurev-genom-121119-100145
Date Available in IDEALS:2021-08-23


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