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Title:ApproxHPVM: A retargetable compiler framework for accuracy-aware optimizations
Author(s):Sharif, Hashim
Director of Research:Adve, Vikram
Doctoral Committee Chair(s):Adve, Vikram
Doctoral Committee Member(s):Adve, Sarita; Misailovic, Sasa; Amarasinghe, Saman; Hoffmann, Henry
Department / Program:Computer Science
Discipline:Computer Science
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Heterogeneous Systems
Approximate Computing
Approximation Tuning
Deep Learning
Abstract:With the increasing need for machine learning and data processing near the edge, software stacks and compilers must provide optimizations for alleviating the computational burden on low-end edge devices. Approximate computing can help bridge the gap between increasing computational demands and limited compute power on such devices. We present ApproxHPVM, a portable optimizing compiler and runtime system that enables flexible, optimized use of multiple software and hardware approximations in a unified easy-to-use framework. ApproxHPVM uses a portable compiler IR and compiler analyses that are designed to enable accuracy-aware performance and energy tuning on heterogeneous systems with multiple compute units and approximation methods. ApproxHPVM automatically translates end-to-end application-level quality metrics into accuracy requirements for individual operations. ApproxHPVM uses a hardware-agnostic accuracy-tuning phase to do this translation that provides greater portability across heterogeneous hardware platforms. ApproxHPVM incorporates three main components: (a) a compiler IR with hardware-agnostic approximation metrics, (b) a hardware-agnostic accuracy-tuning phase to identify error-tolerant computations, and (c) an accuracy-aware hardware scheduler that maps error-tolerant computations to approximate hardware components. As ApproxHPVM does not incorporate any hardware-specific knowledge as part of the IR, it can serve as a portable virtual ISA that can be shipped to all kinds of hardware platforms. We evaluate ApproxHPVM on 9 benchmarks from the deep learning domain and 5 image-processing benchmarks. Our results show that our framework can offload chunks of approximable computations to special-purpose accelerators that provide significant gains in performance and energy, while staying within user-specified application-level quality metrics with high probability. Across the 14 benchmarks, we observe from 1-9x performance speedups and 1.1-11.3x energy reduction for very small reductions in accuracy. ApproxTuner extends ApproxHPVM with a flexible system for dynamic approximation tuning. The key contribution in ApproxTuner is a novel three-phase approach to approximation-tuning that consists of development-time, install-time, and run-time phases. Our approach decouples tuning hardware-independent and hardware-specific approximations, thus providing retargetability across devices. To enable efficient autotuning of approximation choices, we present a novel accuracy-aware tuning technique called predictive approximation-tuning. It can optimize the application during development-time and can also refine the optimization with (previously unknown) hardware-specific approximations at install time. We evaluate ApproxTuner across 11 benchmarks from deep learning and image processing domains. For the evaluated convolutional neural networks, we show that using only hardware-independent approximation choices provides a mean speedup of 2.2x (max 2.7x) on GPU, and 1.4x mean speedup (max 1.9x) on the CPU, while staying within 2 percentage points of inference accuracy loss. For two different accuracy-prediction models, our predictive tuning strategy speeds up tuning by 13.7x and 17.9x compared to conventional empirical tuning while achieving comparable benefits.
Issue Date:2021-04-14
Rights Information:Copyright 2021 Hashim Sharif
Date Available in IDEALS:2021-09-17
Date Deposited:2021-05

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