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Title:Inactivation of Coxackievirus B5 with monochloramine
Author(s):Hochwalt Naumann, Eddalee
Advisor(s):Marinas, Benito
Department / Program:Civil & Environmental Eng
Discipline:Environ Engr in Civil Engr
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Abstract:Waterborne pathogens in water sources used for drinking water supply and recreational purposes can have negative health effects on communities in both developed and developing regions of the world. In the United States, the EPA has developed a Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List including pathogens for potential regulatory action, as they persist in the natural environment and are a threat to public health. One group of pathogens on this list are enteroviruses, of which Coxsackievirus B5 (CVB5), the focus of this study, is a serotype of enterovirus species B that can cause paralysis, myocarditis, and hepatitis. Several disinfectants have been previously considered for the inactivation of a variety of waterborne pathogens. The most common mode of disinfection is free chlorine, which offers the advantage of fast disinfection kinetics. However, using free chlorine also offers the potential to form toxic disinfection by-products (DBPs) such as trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids. Additionally, as free chlorine is relatively reactive, its application could result in low residual disinfectant for the distribution system. In this study, monochloramine is being considered as an alternative disinfectant to free chlorine. Although this form of chlorine is less reactive, and thus, the disinfection kinetics are slower compared to those of free chlorine, it forms lower concentrations of regulated DBPs and under most conditions it provides adequate residual in the distribution system. However, the inactivation kinetics of CVB5 with monochloramine remain to be fully characterized. Accordingly, the main objective of this study was to investigate the inactivation kinetics of CVB5 with monochloramine as a function of pH and temperature within ranges relevant to drinking water treatment. Experiments were performed at all combinations of pH of 7, 8.5, and 10 and temperatures of 5 ̊ C, 15 ̊ C, and 25 ̊ C. Each experimental combination was tested in triplicate and then analyzed using Chick-Watson kinetics. The trends in the data showed that although there was a strong temperature dependence, there was a comparatively limited pH dependence. Additionally, the inactivation data was compared to recommended exposures corresponding to EPA regulations for enteric viruses. Upon analysis, it was determined that the current regulations were generally conservative to represent disinfection kinetics for CVB5.
Issue Date:2021-04-28
Rights Information:Copyright 2021 Eddalee Hochwalt Naumann
Date Available in IDEALS:2021-09-17
Date Deposited:2021-05

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