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Title:Bluetongue and Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease in the United States of America at the Wildlife–Livestock Interface.
Author(s):Rivera, Nelda A.; Varga, Csaba; Ruder, Mark G.; Dorak, Sheena J.; Roca, Alfred L.; Novakofski, Jan E.; Mateus-Pinilla, Nohra E.
Subject(s):BTV
Culicoides midges
EHDV
hemorrhagic disease
epidemiology
orbiviruses
reassortment
serotypes
surveillance
vector
white-tailed deer
Geographic Coverage:United States of America
Abstract:Bluetongue (BT) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) cases have increased worldwide, causing significant economic loss to ruminant livestock production and detrimental effects to susceptible wildlife populations. In recent decades, hemorrhagic disease cases have been reported over expanding geographic areas in the United States. Effective BT and EHD prevention and control strategies for livestock and monitoring of these diseases in wildlife populations depend on an accurate understanding of the distribution of BT and EHD viruses in domestic and wild ruminants and their vectors, the Culicoides biting midges that transmit them. However, national maps showing the distribution of BT and EHD viruses and the presence of Culicoides vectors are incomplete or not available at all. Thus, efforts to accurately describe the potential risk of these viruses on ruminant populations are obstructed by the lack of systematic and routine surveillance of their hosts and vectors. In this review, we: (1) outline animal health impacts of BT and EHD in the USA; (2) describe current knowledge of the distribution and abundance of BT and EHD and their vectors in the USA; and (3) highlight the importance of disease (BT and EHD) and vector surveillance for ruminant populations.
Issue Date:2021-07-21
Publisher:MDPI
Citation Info:Rivera, Nelda A., Csaba Varga, Mark G. Ruder, Sheena J. Dorak, Alfred L. Roca, Jan E. Novakofski, and Nohra E. Mateus-Pinilla. "Bluetongue and Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease in the United States of America at the Wildlife–Livestock Interface." Pathogens 10, no. 8 (2021): 915.
Series/Report:Pathogens 2021, 10(8), 915
Genre:Journal (whole)
Article
Type:Text
Language:English
URI:https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10080915
http://hdl.handle.net/2142/111761
Sponsor:The Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration Project W-146-R
Illinois Natural History Survey-Prairie Research Institute
Office of the Vice-Chancellor for Research at the University of Illinois
Rights Information:Open access under CC BY license
Date Available in IDEALS:2021-10-22


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