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Title:Development and validation of a leisure eustress-distress scale
Author(s):An, Jaesung
Director of Research:Payne, Laura L
Doctoral Committee Chair(s):Payne, Laura L
Doctoral Committee Member(s):Liechty, Toni; Shinew, Kim; Barnett-Morris, Lynn; Ostler , Teresa
Department / Program:Recreation, Sport and Tourism
Discipline:Recreation, Sport, and Tourism
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Older adults
Scale development
Abstract:Despite that the term ‘stress’ was originally suggested as a non-directional construct (Selye, 1936), popular beliefs about stress and its colloquial use of the term often remained one sided (i.e., distress: negative aspects). Thus, most existing studies have only examined the baseline of the concept. Also, a valid and reliable measurement scale of eustress is very limited, as none exists within the context of leisure. In order to fill this gap, this dissertation examined how older adults differently perceive their leisure related stressors. More specifically, the overall aim was to develop a scale that measures leisure-based eustress and distress and evaluate its reliability and validity. In order to construct and validate Leisure Eustress-Distress Scale (LEDS), two phases of study were conducted. The first phase of this study, which was developing and refining items, consisted of three parts: interviews, panel of experts’ review, and a pilot study. For the interviews, telephone/online semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 23 older adults who were recruited from the UIUC’s E-week Newsletter and listserv. From the interviews 83 items were initially created. After four rounds of refinement, the number of items were reduced to 42, which was finalized for the review from panel of experts. Five experts in the field of leisure and aging served on the expert panel to evaluate the items for the LEDS and to evaluate content validity. Based on expert panelists’ feedback, 13 items were revised, and 10 items were removed, leaving LEDS with 32 items. Also, the measurement was revised from a 6-point Likert scale to 5-point Likert scale with clearer wording. Lastly, a pilot study took place to receive final feedback and comments of the overall LEDS. Recruited from the pool of older adults from E-week listserv, 55 older adults participated in the Qualtrics survey. Based on the feedback from pilot study, brief instructions were given before each LEDS – Eustress and LEDS – Distress, so participants could better switch gears between the two scales. The second phase of this dissertation was the target study to construct and validate the LEDS. First, the internal structure of the LEDS was evaluated. coefficient alpha and inter-item correlation indicated that both LEDS – Eustress and LEDS – Distress had a strong reliability. Next, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) and Bartlett’s test was conducted and confirmed that the data is a fit for an exploratory factor analysis (EFA). The Kaiser’s criterion and the scree plot test results indicated suggested three factors for LEDS – Eustress and two factors for LEDS – Distress. With three and two factors for eustress and distress scales, common factor analysis was conducted, and seven items were dropped due to their low communality and cross-loading/small loading value. Each factor was then interpreted and was labeled as physical, psychological, and environmental. Results obtained through the EFA were then subjected to confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Using multiple fit indices to obtain holistic view of goodness of fit, chi-square, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA), the comparative fit index (CFI), and standardized root mean square residual (SRMR) were assessed. As a result, RMSEA, CFI, and SRMR values were all within the recommended guideline, therefore CFA showed good model fit of LEDS. To validate the LEDS, construct and criterion validity were checked. Convergent and discriminant validity were checked to secure construct validity with average variance extracted (AVE) values and its relationship with squared correlations value. As a result, convergent validity was met, however good discriminant validity of both LEDS – Eustress and LEDS – Distress was not achieved. Next, concurrent and predictive validity were checked to secure criterion validity using the results of reworded adolescent distress-eustress scale and leisure satisfaction scale. LEDS – Distress had overall acceptable concurrent and predictive validity, however, LEDS – Eustress did not have acceptable validity for both scales. Further discussion and explanation on some of the results are included in the discussion chapter, as well as the theoretical/practical implication, limitations, and recommendation for future research.
Issue Date:2021-07-14
Rights Information:Copyright 2021 Jaesung An
Date Available in IDEALS:2022-01-12
Date Deposited:2021-08

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