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Title:Field measurements and modeling of gaseous NOx, SO2, HNO3 AND H2SO4 formation from a novel electrostatic precipitator
Author(s):Sherlock, Wyatt James
Advisor(s):Lehmann, Christopher MB; Rood, Mark J
Department / Program:Civil and Environmental Engineering
Discipline:Environmental Engineering in Civil Engineering
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Subject(s):Electrostatic Precipitator
Abstract:Post-combustion CO2 capture (PCC) is a leading technology to reduce CO2 emissions from coal-fired power plants. Amine-based solvent PCC is a method for capturing CO2 however, sub-micrometer diameter particles in flue gas can have a detrimental effect on the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of solvent-based PCC. A novel electrostatic precipitator (ESP), utilizing soft X-ray photoionization, was developed and tested at Abbott Power Plant at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA to determine its effectiveness at capturing sub-micrometer diameter particles. This research investigated whether a novel ESP, utilizing soft X-ray photoionization, causes unintentional formation of gaseous species, including nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitric acid (HNO3) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4). Experimental and modeled results showed the emission rate of NO2 changed the most after passing through the novel ESP. For NO, NO2 and SO2, the best agreement between modeled and experimental data was observed on March 13th, 2020 with the average difference between emission at 2.7, 2.5, and 0.7 %, respectively. Furthermore, the model showed both flue gas temperature and volumetric flow rate would affect emission rate independently. It was shown the modeled NO2 emission rate increased a maximum of 44 % and 215 % at 400 K without and with the application of soft X-ray photoionization in the ESP, respectively. The modeled emission rate of NO decreased a maximum of 8 % and 41 % at 400 K without and with the application of soft X-ray photoionization, respectively. The modeled SO2 emission rate decreased by a maximum of 2 % overall while H2SO4 increased by a maximum of 7 %. Modeled HNO3 was shown to be generated in the ESP, however the emission rate was at a maximum of 2.6 mg/MJ. These results show that an ESP with or without the application of soft X-ray photoionization, can significantly alter emission rates of NO and NO2. However, the influence of soft X-ray photoionization in the ESP on gaseous NO and NO2 emission rates could not be verified during operation due to equipment issues. Gaseous H2SO4 and HNO3 were produced as well but to a lesser extent. The formation of gaseous NO2, in particular, is important for an amine solvent-based PCC process as degradation of solvent can occur posing economic and environmental costs. This research presents a model, based off flue gas temperature, pressure, volumetric flow rate, and flue gas composition that determines how the emission rates of gaseous NO, NO2, SO2, H2SO4 and HNO3 will be affected after passing through an ESP that utilizes soft X-ray photoionization. This is important because model parameters can be set to optimize the upstream conditions (temperature, pressure, flow rate, flue gas composition) so that formation of gaseous NO2 is minimized to reduce its effect in a solvent-based PCC process.
Issue Date:2021-12-07
Rights Information:Copyright 2021 Wyatt Sherlock
Date Available in IDEALS:2022-04-29
Date Deposited:2021-12

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