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Large eddy simulation of shock boundary layer interaction control using micro-vortex generators

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Title: Large eddy simulation of shock boundary layer interaction control using micro-vortex generators
Author(s): Lee, Sang
Director of Research: Loth, Eric
Doctoral Committee Chair(s): Loth, Eric
Doctoral Committee Member(s): Bragg, Michael B.; Christensen, Kenneth T.; Lee, Ki D.; Pantano-Rubino, Carlos A.
Department / Program: Aerospace Engineering
Discipline: Aerospace Engineering
Degree Granting Institution: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Degree: Ph.D.
Genre: Dissertation
Subject(s): supersonic vortex generator shock boundary layer interaction large eddy simulation
Abstract: The performance of supersonic engine inlets and external aerodynamic surfaces can be critically affected by shock wave / boundary layer interactions (SBLIs), whose severe adverse pressure gradients can cause boundary layer separation. Currently such problems are avoided primarily through the use of boundary layer bleed/suction which can be a source of significant performance degradation. This study investigates a novel type of flow control device called micro-vortex generators (µVGs) which may offer similar control benefits without the bleed penalties. µVGs have the ability to alter the near-wall structure of compressible turbulent boundary layers to provide increased mixing of high speed fluid which improves the boundary layer health when subjected to flow disturbance. Due to their small size,µVGs are embedded in the boundary layer which provide reduced drag compared to the traditional vortex generators while they are cost-effective, physically robust and do not require a power source. To examine the potential of µVGs, a detailed experimental and computational study of micro-ramps in a supersonic boundary layer at Mach 3 subjected to an oblique shock was undertaken. The experiments employed a flat plate boundary layer with an impinging oblique shock with downstream total pressure measurements. The moderate Reynolds number of 3,800 based on displacement thickness allowed the computations to use Large Eddy Simulations without the subgrid stress model (LES-nSGS). The LES predictions indicated that the shock changes the structure of the turbulent eddies and the primary vortices generated from the micro-ramp. Furthermore, they generally reproduced the experimentally obtained mean velocity profiles, unlike similarly-resolved RANS computations. The experiments and the LES results indicate that the micro-ramps, whose height is h≈0.5δ, can significantly reduce boundary layer thickness and improve downstream boundary layer health as measured by the incompressible shape factor, H. Regions directly behind the ramp centerline tended to have increased boundary layer thickness indicating the significant three-dimensionality of the flow field. Compared to baseline sizes, smaller micro-ramps yielded improved total pressure recovery. Moving the smaller ramps closer to the shock interaction also reduced the displacement thickness and the separated area. This effect is attributed to decreased wave drag and the closer proximity of the vortex pairs to the wall. In the second part of the study, various types of µVGs are investigated including micro-ramps and micro-vanes. The results showed that vortices generated from µVGs can partially eliminate shock induced flow separation and can continue to entrain high momentum flux for boundary layer recovery downstream. The micro-ramps resulted in thinner downstream displacement thickness in comparison to the micro-vanes. However, the strength of the streamwise vorticity for the micro-ramps decayed faster due to dissipation especially after the shock interaction. In addition, the close spanwise distance between each vortex for the ramp geometry causes the vortex cores to move upwards from the wall due to induced upwash effects. Micro-vanes, on the other hand, yielded an increased spanwise spacing of the streamwise vortices at the point of formation. This resulted in streamwise vortices staying closer to the wall with less circulation decay, and the reduction in overall flow separation is attributed to these effects. Two hybrid concepts, named “thick-vane” and “split-ramp”, were also studied where the former is a vane with side supports and the latter has a uniform spacing along the centerline of the baseline ramp. These geometries behaved similar to the micro-vanes in terms of the streamwise vorticity and the ability to reduce flow separation, but are more physically robust than the thin vanes. Next, Mach number effect on flow past the micro-ramps (h~0.5δ) are examined in a supersonic boundary layer at M=1.4, 2.2 and 3.0, but with no shock waves present. The LES results indicate that micro-ramps have a greater impact at lower Mach number near the device but its influence decays faster than that for the higher Mach number cases. This may be due to the additional dissipation caused by the primary vortices with smaller effective diameter at the lower Mach number such that their coherency is easily lost causing the streamwise vorticity and the turbulent kinetic energy to decay quickly. The normal distance between the vortex core and the wall had similar growth indicating weak correlation with the Mach number; however, the spanwise distance between the two counter-rotating cores further increases with lower Mach number. Finally, various µVGs which include micro-ramp, split-ramp and a new hybrid concept “ramped-vane” are investigated under normal shock conditions at Mach number of 1.3. In particular, the ramped-vane was studied extensively by varying its size, interior spacing of the device and streamwise position respect to the shock. The ramped-vane provided increased vorticity compared to the micro-ramp and the split-ramp. This significantly reduced the separation length downstream of the device centerline where a larger ramped-vane with increased trailing edge gap yielded a fully attached flow at the centerline of separation region. The results from coarse-resolution LES studies show that the larger ramped-vane provided the most reductions in the turbulent kinetic energy and pressure fluctuation compared to other devices downstream of the shock. Additional benefits include negligible drag while the reductions in displacement thickness and shape factor were seen compared to other devices. Increased wall shear stress and pressure recovery were found with the larger ramped-vane in the baseline resolution LES studies which also gave decreased amplitudes of the pressure fluctuations downstream of the shock.
Issue Date: 2010-01-06
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2142/14579
Rights Information: Copyright 2009 Sang Lee
Date Available in IDEALS: 2010-01-06
Date Deposited: December 2
 

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