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Impact of oxidized corn oil and synthetic antioxidant on swine performance, antioxidant status of tissues, pork quality and shelf life evaluation

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Title: Impact of oxidized corn oil and synthetic antioxidant on swine performance, antioxidant status of tissues, pork quality and shelf life evaluation
Author(s): Fernández-Dueñas, Demián M.
Director of Research: Killefer, John
Doctoral Committee Chair(s): Killefer, John
Doctoral Committee Member(s): McKeith, Floyd K.; Ellis, Michael; Harrell, Robert
Department / Program: Animal Sciences
Discipline: Animal Sciences
Degree Granting Institution: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Degree: Ph.D.
Genre: Dissertation
Subject(s): Oxidized corn oil Synthetic antioxidants Swine performance Antioxidant status of tissues Pork quality.
Abstract: The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of antioxidant protected (AOX) or unprotected fresh or oxidized corn oil on animal performance, oxidative status of tissues, pork quality, shelf-life, and antioxidant activity of skeletal muscle of finishing pigs. The experimental design was a complete randomized block design (CRBD) in a factorial arrangement (2×2), with 2 levels of corn oil (fresh or oxidized corn oil) and 2 levels of antioxidant (AOX; with or without AOX). A total of 160 barrows were fed for 56 days one of the following experimental diets: fresh oil, fresh oil + AOX, oxidized oil or oxidized oil + AOX. Animal performance was evaluated and oxidative status of blood, liver and jejunum was determined, including thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), free carbonyl, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) as oxidative indicators, as well as fatty acid composition, vitamin A and vitamin E concentration. After the live phase, a total of 32 barrows were selected for pork quality and shelf life evaluation. Subjective and objective quality traits were assessed. Loin chops were collected for drip loss, proximate analyses as well as sensory attributes at 0, 7 and 14 d of aging, that include juiciness, tenderness, off-flavor and oxidized odor. Also, loin chops and ground Boston Butt were evaluated for discoloration percentage and TBARS after 0, 7, 14 and 21 d in the retail display case. Fatty acid, and vitamin A and vitamin E concentration were determined in backfat and belly fat samples. Finally, diaphragm and loin samples were collected and AOX enzyme activity determinations including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were performed. Barrows fed diets formulated with fresh oil had an increased cumulative ADG (P<0.03), ADFI (P<0.04) after 56 d and increased final weight (P<0.03) when compared to animals fed oxidized oil. An increase (P<0.06) in TBARS values, a decrease (P<0.03) in GPx enzyme activity and a decrease (P<0.01) in Vitamin E concentration were observed in plasma from barrows fed diets formulated with oxidized oil. Also, an increase (P<0.04) in free carbonyl was detected in plasma from barrows fed diets formulated with AOX unprotected oil. In regards to pork quality and shelf-life, increased hot carcass weight (P<0.01) and carcass yield (P<0.01) were observed for pigs fed fresh oil and increased (P<0.05) carcass yield was observed for pigs fed AOX protected oil. Increased (P<0.03) moisture content was observed in loins from animals fed AOX unprotected oil and increased (P<0.04) moisture content and decreased (P<0.05) fat content were observed for animals fed oxidized oil. After 14 d of retail display, TBARS values were decreased (P<0.001) for loins from animals fed diets containing AOX protected fresh oil, and the decrease (P<0.001) continued until after 21 d. In backfat, vitamin A concentration was increased (P<0.02) in barrows fed fresh oil, and no oil or AOX effects were found for vitamin E concentration. In belly fat, an increase in vitamin A (P<0.05) and vitamin E (P<0.03) concentrations were observed for barrows fed AOX protected oil. Finally, SOD activity was increased (P<0.04) for diets formulated with AOX. Also, CAT and GPx enzyme activity were increased (P<0.01) in diaphragm compared to loin. In conclusion, oxidized oil had a negative impact on animal performance affecting ADG and ADFI resulting in a lighter final weight, also, increasing lipid oxidation and affecting antioxidant systems such as GPx and vitamin E in tissues. Pork quality was not impacted; however, shelf-life was positively affected by AOX protected fresh oil decreasing discoloration and lipid oxidation (TBARS). Finally, CAT and GPx activity were increased in muscles with higher oxidative metabolism, and SOD enzyme activity was increased in animals fed AOX protected oils.
Issue Date: 2010-01-06
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2142/14588
Rights Information: Copyright 2009 Demian M. Fernandez Duenas
Date Available in IDEALS: 2010-01-06
Date Deposited: December 2
 

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