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Title:Experimental study of full-scale iced-airfoil aerodynamic performance using sub-scale simulations
Author(s):Busch, Greg T.
Director of Research:Bragg, Michael B.
Doctoral Committee Chair(s):Bragg, Michael B.
Doctoral Committee Member(s):Loth, Eric; Selig, Michael S.; Christensen, Kenneth T.
Department / Program:Aerospace Engineering
Discipline:Aerospace Engineering
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Subject(s):ice accretion
iced airfoil
sub-scale simulation
Abstract:Determining the aerodynamic effects of ice accretion on aircraft surfaces is an important step in aircraft design and certification. The goal of this work was to develop a complete sub-scale wind tunnel simulation methodology based on knowledge of the detailed iced-airfoil flowfield that allows the accurate measurement of aerodynamic penalties associated with the accretion of ice on an airfoil and to validate this methodology using full-scale iced-airfoil performance data obtained at near-flight Reynolds numbers. In earlier work, several classifications of ice shape were developed based on key aerodynamic features in the iced-airfoil flowfield: ice roughness, streamwise ice, horn ice, and tall and short spanwise-ridge ice. Castings of each of these classifications were acquired on a full-scale NACA 23012 airfoil model and the aero- dynamic performance of each was measured at a Reynolds number of 12.0 x 10^6 and a Mach number = 0.20. In the current study, sub-scale simple-geometry and 2-D smooth simulations of each of these castings were constructed based on knowledge of iced-airfoil flowfields. The effects of each simulation on the aerodynamic performance of an 18-inch chord NACA 23012 airfoil model was measured in the University of Illinois 3 x 4 ft. wind tunnel at a Reynolds number of 1.8 x 10^6 and a Mach number of 0.18 and compared with that measured for the corresponding full-scale casting at high Reynolds number. Geometrically-scaled simulations of the horn-ice and tall spanwise-ridge ice castings modeled Cl,max to within 2% and Cd,min to within 15%. Good qualitative agreement in the Cp distributions suggests that important geometric features such as horn and ridge height, surface location, and angle with respect to the airfoil chordline were appropriately modeled. Geometrically-scaled simulations of the ice roughness, streamwise ice, and short-ridge ice tended to have conservative Cl,max and Cd. The aerodynamic performance of simulations of these types of accretion was found to be sensitive to roughness height and concentration. Scaled roughness heights smaller than those found on the casting were necessary to improve simulation accuracy, resulting in Cl,max and Cd,min within 3% and 5% of the casting, respectively.
Issue Date:2010-01-06
Rights Information:Copyright 2009 Greg T. Busch
Date Available in IDEALS:2010-01-06
Date Deposited:December 2

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