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Protective potential of fruits against diabetes and its complications

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Title: Protective potential of fruits against diabetes and its complications
Author(s): Kraft, Tristan F.
Director of Research: Lila, Mary Ann
Doctoral Committee Chair(s): Erdman, John W.
Doctoral Committee Member(s): Lila, Mary Ann; de Mejia, Elvira G.; Seigler, David S.; Wallig, Matthew A.
Department / Program: Nutritional Sciences
Discipline: Nutritional Sciences
Degree Granting Institution: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Degree: Ph.D.
Genre: Dissertation
Subject(s): Diabetes Flavonoids Inflammation Aldose reductase Vaccinium angustifolium Artistotelia chilensis Prunus virginiana Viburnum trilobum
Abstract: Abstract Fruits have been increasingly studied for health-promoting properties and recent studies suggest that fruit compounds may provide protection against diabetes and its complications. Wild fruit species, Amelanchier alnifolia, Viburnum trilobum, Prunus virginiana, Shepherdia argentea, Vaccinium angustifolium, and Aristotelia chilensis, which have all been utilized by traditional cultures for sustenance and health, were evaluated for ability to protect against the development of diabetes and its complications. Fruits of these species were extracted and separated into fractions rich in different phytochemical classes. Fruits of V. trilobum demonstrated significant ability to improve energy expenditure by increasing fatty acid oxidation and glycogen accumulation in vitro. The role of gene expression on these changes was explored and high-molecular weight proanthocyanidins (PAC-h) inhibited expression of glucose-6-phosphatase in a dose dependent manner. In addition, anthocyanins from V. trilobum interacted with the PAC-h in an additive manner to inhibit expression of glucose-6-phosphatase in vitro. Flavonoid-rich, anthocyanin-rich (ANC), and proanthocyanidin-rich (PAC) fractions from P. virginiana and V. angustifolium fruits were tested to determine potential to inhibit LPS-induced production of inflammatory mediators (IL-6, TNFα, and NO) in murine microglial cells. Dose-dependent inhibition of IL-6 was observed by the flavonoid-rich and ANC fractions from both species (maximum inhibition by V. angustifolium ANC fraction with IC50 = 111 µg/mL), inhibition of TNFα was seen by flavonoid-rich fractions of both species (greatest inhibition by P. virginiana with IC50 = 248 µg/mL), and inhibition of NO was demonstrated by flavonoid-rich and PAC fractions of both species (highest inhibition by V. angustifolium PAC fraction with IC50 = 204 µg/mL). Interactions between flavonoid-rich and PAC fractions of V. angustifolium showed a greater than additive type of interaction whereas interactions between PAC and ANC were of an interference type. Fruit extract of A. chilensis and P. virginiana were explored for aldose reductase inhibitory activity. Overall, fractions from A. chilensis were more active than those from P. virginiana with maximum IC50 activity of 0.7 µg/mL. Fractions with the most activity were positively associated with proanthocyanidin and flavonol content.
Issue Date: 2010-05-14
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2142/15531
Rights Information: Copyright 2010 Tristan Fuldner Kraft
Date Available in IDEALS: 2010-05-14
2012-05-15
Date Deposited: May 2010
 

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