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Title:Effect of yerba mate tea caffeine and green coffee by-products on in vitro adipogenesis and lipid accumulation and their incorporation into functional beverages
Author(s):Heckman, Melanie A.
Advisor(s):de Mejia, Elvira G.
Department / Program:Food Science & Human Nutrition
Discipline:Food Science & Human Nutrition
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Subject(s):Adipose Tissue
green coffee by-products
energy drinks
Abstract:In addition to its stimulatory effect, caffeine has been also associated with suppressing lipid accumulation and weight gain, making the well established energy drink market an ideal avenue to expand product health functionality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of caffeine extracted from Yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) (matein, MT) and green coffee (Coffea arabica) byproducts (fractions GC1, GC2, GC3 and GC4) on inhibition of lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes compared to synthetic caffeine (SC). The antioxidant capacity (AC) and total polyphenol content (TPC) of these novel caffeine sources were also investigated and compared to SC using the Oxygen Radical Absorbance (ORAC) assay and the Folin-Ciocalteu method, respectively. Lipid quantification was done by the Oil Red O staining and real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to determine expression of two genes involved in lipid metabolism, lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and fatty acid synthase (FAS). Inhibition of lipid accumulation (%) was highly correlated to caffeine concentration of the samples (R2 = 0.88). MT and GC1 had the highest caffeine concentrations (90.8 and 93.8%, respectively), and exhibited the highest lipid reduction (18.3 and 17.1%, respectively) compared to untreated cells (p<0.05). MT and GC1 had similar inhibition of lipid accumulation compared to SC (16.3%), epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) (17.5%), and Orlistat (17.9%). Adipocytes treated throughout differentiation resulted in an elevated inhibitory effect, with MT (22.8 ± 2.2%) and GC1 (26.8 ± 1.8%) having similar inhibitory capacity to SC (29.3 ± 0.5%). RT-PCR showed MT and GC1 may play a role in lipid metabolism by suppressing LPL and FAS. The GC byproducts and MT at 1000 µM had an AC range of 19.4 ± 0.2 to 1550.2 ± 19.2 with a mean of 446.5 Trolox µM equivalents (eq.), whereas SC had none. The TPC of the GC byproducts, MT, and SC ranged from 5.7 ± 0.3 to 153.5 ± 1.1 gallic acid (GA) µg eq., with SC resulting in the lowest. In conclusion, these results suggest that the incorporation of MT and GC1 into beverage formulations would provide a natural source of caffeine and potentially aid in long-term weight maintenance, and give in contrast to SC, antioxidant benefits.
Issue Date:2010-05-18
Rights Information:Copyright 2010 Melanie Heckman
Date Available in IDEALS:2010-05-18
Date Deposited:May 2010

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