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Digestibility of dietary fiber by growing pigs

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Title: Digestibility of dietary fiber by growing pigs
Author(s): Urriola, Pedro E.
Director of Research: Stein, Hans H.
Doctoral Committee Chair(s): Stein, Hans H.
Doctoral Committee Member(s): Fahey, George C., Jr.; Pettigrew, James E.; Swanson, Kelly S.; Kerr, Brian J.
Department / Program: Animal Sciences
Discipline: Animal Sciences
Degree Granting Institution: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Degree: Ph.D.
Genre: Dissertation
Subject(s): Dietary Fiber Digestibility Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles Energy Pig
Abstract: ABSTRACT: In vivo digestibility and in vitro digestibility experiments were used to study effects of feeding distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and other high fiber ingredients to growing pigs. The objective of Exp. 1 was to measure the effects on digestibility of AA, energy, and fiber of adding 30% DDGS to a corn soybean meal diet and to measure intestinal transit time. Growing pigs were cannulated at the terminal ileum and in the cecum. Results showed that apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of Lys (74.1%) was reduced (P < 0.05) in the diet with 30% DDGS compared with the control diet (78.6%). However, the AID of most other AA was not affected by the inclusion of DDGS. The AID and the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy and TDF were lower in the diet with 30% DDGS (81.0 and 55.5%) than in the control diet (86.0 and 60.0%), but that reduction could not be explained by changes in gut transit time, or by changes in concentration of volatile fatty acids (VFA) in ileal, cecal, or fecal matter. The objective of Exp. 2 was to measure the AID and ATTD of total dietary fiber (TDF) in 24 sources of corn DDGS (C-DDGS), sorghum DDGS (S-DDGS) and a blend of corn and sorghum DDGS (SC-DDGS). We observed that, on average, the ATTD of TDF was 47.3%, but it ranged from 29.3 to 57.0%. The ATTD of TDF was correlated (r2) to the ATTD of crude fiber (0.42), NDF (0.90), and IDF (0.79), but it was not correlated to ATTD of SDF (0.25) or carbohydrates (0.21). These data suggest that the ATTD of TDF needs to be improved to increase utilization of fiber from DDGS as a source of dietary energy. Therefore, in Exp. 3, the effect of the type of dietary fiber and the breed of pigs were studied. Five light Yorkshire pigs (BW: 80.1 ± 11.2 kg; 4 mo old), 5 heavy Yorkshire pigs (BW: 102.1 ± 3.5 kg; 4 mo old), and 5 Meishan pigs (BW: 77.2 ±15.2 kg; 5 mo old) were cannulated in the distal ileum and fed 5 diets with increasing concentration of soluble dietary fiber (SDF). When fed the corn soybean meal diet (SDF = 0%), Meishan pigs, had a greater (P < 0.05) ATTD of DM, GE, and carbohydrates (89.2, 89.5, 95.5%) than light (86.6, 86.6, and 92.4%) and heavy (87.0, 86.5, and 93.0%) Yorkshire pigs. The ATTD of TDF was greater (P < 0.05) in Meishan pigs fed DDGS (75.3%) than in light (39.0%) and heavy (55.7%) Yorkshire pigs. The ATTD of TDF (P < 0.05) in DDGS was also greater (P < 0.05) in heavy than in light Yorkshire pigs. However, the ATTD of TDF was not different among the 3 groups of pigs when fed sugar beet pulp, soybean hulls, and pectin. These results indicate that the ATTD of TDF is greater in Meishan than in Yorkshire pigs in feed ingredients with high concentration of IDF, but in ingredients containing more SDF, no differences were observed. Because, ATTD of GE is dependent on the ATTD of TDF and because in vivo digestibility experiments are expensive and time consuming, it is advantageous to develop procedures to measure digestibility of fiber in vitro. The objective of Exp. 4 was, therefore, to modify the 3 step in vitro digestibility of OM to measure the in vitro ATTD of NDF in a subset of samples that was analyzed in Exp. 2. Results indicate that in vitro AID (28.5%) and in vitro ATTD (37.5%) of NDF were lower than the in vivo AID (45.9%) and ATTD (59.3%) values observed in Exp. 2. There were some agreements between values obtained using both procedures. In DDG, the AID and ATTD of DM (30.1 and 42.5%) and NDF (-19.2 and 17.5%) were lower (P < 0.01) than in any source of DDGS and this pattern also was observed in Exp. 2. However, the relationships were not strong enough (R2 = 0.12) to predict in vivo ATTD of NDF. In conclusion, dietary fiber from DDGS has an intermediate digestibility and does not affect digestibility of the other nutrients in the diet. The ability of pigs to digest fiber varies with age and breed and there are interactions with the type of fiber. A procedure that measures digestibility of fiber is, therefore, necessary.
Issue Date: 2010-05-19
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2142/16111
Rights Information: ©2010 Pedro Enrique Urriola
Date Available in IDEALS: 2010-05-19
Date Deposited: May 2010
 

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