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Synthesis, characterization and chemical vapor deposition of transition metal di(tert-butyl)amido compounds

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Title: Synthesis, characterization and chemical vapor deposition of transition metal di(tert-butyl)amido compounds
Author(s): Spicer, Charles W.
Doctoral Committee Chair(s): Girolami, Gregory S.
Doctoral Committee Member(s): Abelson, John R.; Klemperer, Walter G.; Rauchfuss, Thomas B.
Department / Program: Chemistry
Discipline: Chemistry
Degree Granting Institution: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Degree: Ph.D.
Genre: Dissertation
Subject(s): two coordinate dialkylamido Di(tert-butyl)amido amido linear agostic anagostic sterically bulky sterics Jahn-Teller effect Renner-Teller effect inorganic paramagnetic organometallic transition metal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) metal nitride paramagnet manganese nitride iron nitride transamination iron manganese titanium nickel cobalt palladium SQUID mossbauer EPR
Abstract: Although the transition metal chemistry of many dialkylamido ligands has been well studied, the chemistry of the bulky di(tert-butyl)amido ligand has been largely overlooked. The di(tert-butyl)amido ligand is well suited for synthesizing transition metal compounds with low coordination numbers; such compounds may exhibit interesting structural, physical, and chemical properties. Di(tert-butyl)amido complexes of transition metals are expected to exhibit high volatilities and low decomposition temperatures, thus making them well suited for the chemical vapor deposition of metals and metal nitrides. Treatment of MnBr₂(THF)₂, FeI₂, CoBr₂(DME), or NiBr₂(DME) with two equivalents of LiN(t-Bu)2 in benzene affords the two-coordinate complex M[N(t-Bu)₂]₂, where M is Mn, Fe, Co, or Ni. Crystallographic studies show that the M-N distances decrease across the series: 1.9365 (Mn), 1.8790 (Fe), 1.845 (Co), 1.798 Å (Ni). The N-M- N angles are very close to linear for Mn and Fe (179.30 and 179.45°, respectively), but bent for Co and Ni (159.2 and 160.90°, respectively). As expected, the d⁵ Mn complex has a magnetic moment of 5.53 μΒ that is very close to the spin only value. The EPR spectrum is nearly axial with a low E/D ratio of 0.014. The d⁶ Fe compound has a room temperature magnetic moment of 5.55 μΒ indicative of a large orbital angular momentum contribution. It does not exhibit a Jahn-Teller distortion despite the expected doubly degenerate ground state. Applied field Mössbauer spectroscopy shows that the effective internal hyperfine field is unusually large, Hint = 105 T. The magnetic moments of Co[N(t-Bu)₂]₂ and Ni[N(t-Bu)₂]₂ are 5.24 and 3.02 μΒ respectively. Both are EPR silent at 4.2 K. Treatment of TiCl₄ with three equivalents of LiN(t-Bu)2 in pentane affords the briding imido compound Ti₂[μ-N(t-Bu)]₂Cl₂[N(t-Bu)₂]₂ via a dealkylation reaction. Rotation around the bis(tert-butyl)amido groups is hindered, with activation parameters of ΔH‡ = 12.8 ± 0.6 kcal mol-1 and ΔS‡ = -8 ± 2 cal K-1 ·mol-1, as evidenced by variable temperature 1H NMR spectroscopy. Treatment of TiCl₄ with two equivalents of HN(t-Bu)₂ affords Ti₂Cl₆[N(t-Bu)₂]₂. This complex shows a close-contact of 2.634(3) Å between Ti and the carbon atom of one of the CH₃ substituents on the tert-butyl groups. Theoretical considerations and detailed structural comparisons suggest this interaction is not agostic in nature, but rather is a consequence of interligand repulsions. Treatment of NiI₂(PPh3)₂ and PdCl₂(PPh₃)₂ with LiN(t-Bu)₂in benzene affords Ni[N(t-Bu)₂](PPh₃)I and Pd₃(μ₂-NBut₂)2(μ₂-PPh₂)Ph(PPh₃) respectively. The compound Ni[N(t-Bu)₂](PPh₃)I has distorted T-shape in geometry, whereas Pd₃(μ₂-NBut₂)₂(μ₂-PPh₂)Ph(PPh₃) contains a triangular palladium core. Manganese nitride films were grown from Mn[N(t-Bu)₂]₂ in the presence of anhydrous ammonia. The growth rate was several nanometers per minute even at the remarkably low temperature of 80⁰C. As grown, the films are carbon- and oxygen-free, and have a columnar morphology. The spacings between the columns become smaller and the films become smoother as the growth temperature is increased. The composition of the films is consistent with a stoichiometry of Mn₅N₂.
Issue Date: 2008
Type: Text
Language: English
Rights Information: Copyright 2008 Charles W. Spicer
Date Available in IDEALS: 2010-05-24

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