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Title:Genomic and biochemical investigation of soybean antioxidant metabolism in response to growth at elevated carbon dioxide and elevated ozone
Author(s):Gillespie, Kelly M.
Director of Research:Ainsworth, Elizabeth A.
Doctoral Committee Chair(s):Ainsworth, Elizabeth A.
Doctoral Committee Member(s):Ort, Donald R.; Huber, Steven C.; Clough, Steven J.
Department / Program:School of Integrative Biology
Discipline:Biology
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Degree:Ph.D.
Genre:Dissertation
Subject(s):climate change
ozone
carbon dioxide
antioxidant metabolism
principle components analysis
Free Air Concentration Enrichment (FACE)
ascorbic acid
Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC)
phenolic content
Abstract:Metabolism in an environment containing of 21% oxygen has a high risk of oxidative damage due to the formation of reactive oxygen species. Therefore, plants have evolved an antioxidant system consisting of metabolites and enzymes that either directly scavenge ROS or recycle the antioxidant metabolites. Ozone is a temporally dynamic molecule that is both naturally occurring as well as an environmental pollutant that is predicted to increase in concentration in the future as anthropogenic precursor emissions rise. It has been hypothesized that any elevation in ozone concentration will cause increased oxidative stress in plants and therefore enhanced subsequent antioxidant metabolism, but evidence for this response is variable. Along with increasing atmospheric ozone concentrations, atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration is also rising and is predicted to continue rising in the future. The effect of elevated carbon dioxide concentrations on antioxidant metabolism varies among different studies in the literature. Therefore, the question of how antioxidant metabolism will be affected in the most realistic future atmosphere, with increased carbon dioxide concentration and increased ozone concentration, has yet to be answered, and is the subject of my thesis research. First, in order to capture as much of the variability in the antioxidant system as possible, I developed a suite of high-throughput quantitative assays for a variety of antioxidant metabolites and enzymes. I optimized these assays for Glycine max (soybean), one of the most important food crops in the world. These assays provide accurate, rapid and high-throughput measures of both the general and specific antioxidant action of plant tissue extracts. Second, I investigated how growth at either elevated carbon dioxide concentration or chronic elevated ozone concentration altered antioxidant metabolism, and the ability of soybean to respond to an acute oxidative stress in a controlled environment study. I found that growth at chronic elevated ozone concentration increased the antioxidant capacity of leaves, but was unchanged or only slightly increased following an acute oxidative stress, suggesting that growth at chronic elevated ozone concentration primed the antioxidant system. Growth at high carbon dioxide concentration decreased the antioxidant capacity of leaves, increased the response of the existing antioxidant enzymes to an acute oxidative stress, but dampened and delayed the transcriptional response, suggesting an entirely different regulation of the antioxidant system. Third, I tested the findings from the controlled environment study in a field setting by investigating the response of the soybean antioxidant system to growth at elevated carbon dioxide concentration, chronic elevated ozone concentration and the combination of elevated carbon dioxide concentration and elevated ozone concentration. In this study, I confirmed that growth at elevated carbon dioxide concentration decreased specific components of antioxidant metabolism in the field. I also verified that increasing ozone concentration is highly correlated with increases in the metabolic and genomic components of antioxidant metabolism, regardless of carbon dioxide concentration environment, but that the response to increasing ozone concentration was dampened at elevated carbon dioxide concentration. In addition, I found evidence suggesting an up regulation of respiratory metabolism at higher ozone concentration, which would supply energy and carbon for detoxification and repair of cellular damage. These results consistently support the conclusion that growth at elevated carbon dioxide concentration decreases antioxidant metabolism while growth at elevated ozone concentration increases antioxidant metabolism.
Issue Date:2010-08-20
URI:http://hdl.handle.net/2142/16768
Rights Information:Copyright 2010 Kelly M. Gillespie
Date Available in IDEALS:2010-08-20
Date Deposited:2010-08


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