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Chitosan fibrous scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering

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Title: Chitosan fibrous scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering
Author(s): Ragetly, Guillaume R.
Director of Research: Griffon, Dominique J.
Doctoral Committee Chair(s): Griffon, Dominique J.
Doctoral Committee Member(s): Gordon-Evans, Wanda; Cunningham, Brian T.; Schaeffer, David; Bunick, David
Department / Program: Vet Clinical Medicine
Discipline: VMS-Veterinary Clinical Medcne
Degree Granting Institution: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Degree: Ph.D.
Genre: Dissertation
Subject(s): Cartilage tissue engineering chitosan scaffold Chondrocyte mesenchymal stem cell chondrogenesis cell adhesion
Abstract: The biocompatibility of chitosan and its similarity with glycosaminoglycans make it attractive for cartilage engineering despite its limited cell adhesion properties. Structural and chemical characteristics of chitosan scaffolds may be improved for cartilage engineering application. We planned to evaluate chitosan meshes produced by a novel technique and the effect of chitosan structure on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) chondrogenesis. Another objective was to improve cell adhesion and chondrogenesis on chitosan by modifying the chemical composition of the scaffold (reacetylation, collagen II, or hyaluronic acid (HA) coating). A replica molding technique was developed to produce chitosan meshes of different fiber-width. A polyglycolic acid (PGA) mesh served as a reference. Constructs were analyzed at two and 21 days after seeding chondrocytes with confocal microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, histology, and quantitative analysis (weights, DNA, glycosaminoglycans, collagen II). Chondrocytes maintained their phenotypic appearance and a high viability but attached preferentially to PGA. Matrix production per chondrocyte was superior on chitosan. Chitosan meshes and sponges were analyzed after seeding and culture of MSCs under chondrogenic condition for 21 days. The cellularity was similar between groups but matrix production was greater on meshes. Chitosan and reacetylated-chitosan scaffolds were coated with collagen II or HA. Scaffolds were characterized prior to seeding MSCs. Chitosan meshes were then coated with collagen at two densities. PGA served as a reference. Constructs were evaluated after seeding or culture of MSCs for 21 days in chondrogenic medium. MSCs adhered less to reacetylated-chitosan despite collagen coating. HA did not affect cell adhesion. The cell attachment on chitosan correlated with collagen density. The cell number and matrix production were improved after culture in collagen coated meshes. The differences between PGA and chitosan are likely to result from the chemical composition. Chondrogenesis is superior on chitosan meshes compared to sponges. Collagen II coating is an efficient way to overcome poor cell adhesion on chitosan. These findings encourage the use of chitosan meshes coated with collagen II and confirm the importance of biomimetic scaffolds for tissue engineering. The decreased cell adhesion on reacetylated chitosan and the poor mechanical stability of PGA limit their use for tissue engineering.
Issue Date: 2010-08-20
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2142/16781
Rights Information: Copyright 2010 Guillaume R. Ragetly
Date Available in IDEALS: 2010-08-20
Date Deposited: 2010-08
 

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