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Title:Effects of incomplete combustion on atmospheric chemistry: Black carbon climate forcing and global carbon monoxide emissions
Author(s):Zarzycki, Colin
Advisor(s):Bond, Tami C.
Department / Program:Civil & Environmental Eng
Discipline:Environ Engr in Civil Engr
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
black carbon
radiative transfer
carbon monoxide
Abstract:This thesis is actually the composition of two separate studies aimed at further understanding the role of incomplete combustion products on atmospheric chemistry. The first explores the sensitivity of black carbon (BC) forcing to aerosol vertical location since BC has an increased forcing per unit mass when it is located above reflective clouds. We used a column radiative transfer model to produce globally-averaged values of normalized direct radiative forcing (NDRF) for BC over and under different types of clouds. We developed a simple column-weighting scheme based on the mass fractions of BC that are over and under clouds in measured vertical profiles. The resulting NDRF is in good agreement with global 3-D model estimates, supporting the column-weighted model as a tool for exploring uncertainties due to diversity in vertical distribution. BC above low clouds accounts for about 20% of the global burden but 50% of the forcing. We estimate maximum-minimum spread in NDRF due to modeled profiles as about 40% and uncertainty as about 25%. Models overestimate BC in the upper troposphere compared with measurements; modeled NDRF might need to be reduced by about 15%. Redistributing BC within the lowest 4 km of the atmosphere affects modeled NDRF by only about 5% and cannot account for very high forcing estimates. The second study estimated global year 2000 carbon monoxide (CO) emissions using a traditional bottom-up inventory. We applied literature-derived emission factors to a variety of fuel and technology combinations. Combining these with regional fuel use and production data we produced CO emissions estimates that were separable by sector, fuel type, technology, and region. We estimated year 2000 stationary source emissions of 685.9 Tg/yr and 885 Tg/yr if we included adopted mobile sources from EDGAR v3.2FT2000. Open/biomass burning contributed most significantly to global CO burden, while the residential sector, primarily in Asia and Africa, were the largest contributors with respect to contained combustion sources. Industry production in Asia, including brick, cement, iron and steel-making, also contributed significantly to CO emissions. Our estimates of biofuel emissions are lower than most previously published bottom-up estimates while our other fuel emissions are generally in good agreement. Our values are also universally lower than recently estimated CO emissions from models using top-down methods.
Issue Date:2010-08-31
Rights Information:Copyright 2010 Colin Zarzycki
Date Available in IDEALS:2010-08-31
Date Deposited:2010-08

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