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Title:Flavor chemistry of lemon-lime carbonated beverages
Author(s):Hausch, Bethany J.
Advisor(s):Cadwallader, Keith R.
Department / Program:Food Science & Human Nutrition
Discipline:Food Science & Human Nutrition
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
carbonated beverages
gas chromatography-olfactometry, aroma extract dilution analysis
stable isotope dilution assay
Abstract:The most potent aroma-active components of Sprite® (SP), Sierra Mist® (SM), and 7UP® (7UP) were identified. Aroma extracts were prepared by liquid-liquid continuous extraction/solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (LLCE/SAFE). Twenty eight compounds were detected by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GCO) with linalool (floral, lavender), octanal (pungent orange) and 2,3-dehydro-1,8-cineole (minty) determined to be predominant aroma compounds based on their high flavor dilution (FD) factors by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). The data indicate that lemon-lime is composed of a small number of compounds (22 at the most in SM) and only a subset of these may be important since many compounds were only detected at low FD factors. Predominant aroma compounds in three commercial brands of lemon-lime carbonated beverages were quantified using static headspace solid phase microextraction (SPME) combined with stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA). The compounds chosen for quantification were 2,3-dehydro-1,8-cineole, 1,8-cineole, octanal, nonanal, decanal, linalool, borneol, isoborneol, neral, geranial, nerol, geraniol and p-cresol. Benzoic acid was quantified separately by HPLC using an external standardization method. Concentrations of the all compounds, except neral, differed between at least two brands. Concentrations of 1,8-cineole, octanal, nonanal, decanal, linalool, isoborneol, geraniol and benzoic acid differed among all brands. In contrast to FD factors, the calculated odor-activity values (OAVs) indicated that decanal was the most potent aroma compound, followed by octanal and dehydrocineole; with linalool and nonanal being moderately important to the aroma of lemon-lime carbonated beverages. Possible errors in the determination of threshold values and the nature of GCO analysis preclude the results of the two methodologies from matching exactly. The results demonstrate that lemon-lime carbonated beverages share many of the same compounds but the relative abundance of these compounds varies by brand. Recommendations for further research include conducting sensory model studies based on the quantification data and determining compound thresholds in a carbonated matrix.
Issue Date:2011-01-14
Rights Information:Copyright 2010 Bethany J. Hausch
Date Available in IDEALS:2011-01-14
Date Deposited:December 2

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