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Simulations of droplet dispersion in the wakes of cylinders and icing tunnel spray bars

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Title: Simulations of droplet dispersion in the wakes of cylinders and icing tunnel spray bars
Author(s): Lee, Albert Y.
Advisor(s): Loth, Eric
Department / Program: Aerospace Engineering
Discipline: Aerospace Engineering
Degree Granting Institution: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Degree: M.S.
Genre: Thesis
Subject(s): computational fluid dynamics multi-phase flow particle dispersion hybrid RANS/LES cylinder wake icing tunnel Reynolds Average Navier-Stokes (RANS) Large-Eddy Simulations (LES)
Abstract: Simulations of droplet dispersion behind cylinder wakes and downstream of icing tunnel spray bars were conducted. In both cases, a range of droplet sizes were investigated numerically with a Lagrangian particle trajectory approach while the turbulent air flow was investigated with a hybrid Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes/Large-Eddy Simulations approach scheme. In the first study, droplets were injected downstream of a cylinder at sub-critical conditions (i.e. with laminar boundary layer separation). A stochastic continuous random walk (CRW) turbulence model was used to capture the effects of sub-grid turbulence. Small inertia droplets (characterized by small Stokes numbers) were affected by both the large-scale and small-scale vortex structures and closely followed the air flow, while exhibiting a dispersion consistent with that of a scalar flow field. Droplets with intermediate Stokes numbers were centrifuged by the vortices to the outer edges of the wake, yielding an increased dispersion. Large Stokes number droplets were found to be less responsive to the vortex structures and exhibited the least dispersion. Particle concentration was also correlated with vorticity distribution which yielded preferential bias effects as a function of different particle sizes. This trend was qualitatively similar to results seen in homogenous isotropic turbulence, though the influence of particle inertia was less pronounced for the cylinder wake case. A similar study was completed for droplet dispersion within the Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) at the NASA Glenn Research Center, where it is important to obtain a nearly uniform liquid water content (LWC) distribution in the test section (to recreate atmospheric icing conditions).. For this goal, droplets are diffused by the mean and turbulent flow generated from the nozzle air jets, from the upstream spray bars, and from the vertical strut wakes. To understand the influence of these three components, a set of simulations was conducted with a sequential inclusion of these components. Firstly, a jet in an otherwise quiescent airflow was simulated to capture the impact of the air jet on flow turbulence and droplet distribution, and the predictions compared well with experimental results. The effects of the spray bar wake and vertical strut wake were then included with two more simulation conditions, for which it was found that the air jets were the primary driving force for droplet dispersion, i.e. that the spray bar and vertical strut wake effects were secondary.
Issue Date: 2011-01-14
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2142/18335
Rights Information: Copyright 2010 Albert Y. Lee
Date Available in IDEALS: 2011-01-14
Date Deposited: December 2
 

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