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Title:Three-dimensional analysis of the flight phase in the long jump
Author(s):Kim, Ky-Hyoung
Doctoral Committee Chair(s):Carlton, Les G.
Department / Program:Kinesiology and Community Health
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Subject(s):Education, Physical
Abstract:The effect of the flight phase on jumping distance was examined using simulation procedures. Most previous studies of the long jump have focused on the approach and take-off phases of the long jump where the jumper makes contact with the track surface. Under these conditions, force can be measured directly using force transducers, and the force measures can be correlated with the distance jumped. The flight phase has received less attention, partly because the trajectory of the center of mass of the whole body is prescribed at take-off and cannot be changed during flight (ignoring aerodynamic effects), and partly because kinetic variables can only be approximated based on measured kinematic patterns.
The purpose of the study was to investigate the characteristics of the flight phase as a function of the angular momentum developed by the jumper. A medium distance collegiate jumper was used to obtain kinematic data from the flight phase of a hitch-kick style long jump. Three dimensional filming techniques were used and the Direct Linear Transformation method was used to obtain three dimensional coordinates. A 15 segment physical model was developed for simulation, with kinetic variables approximated using a rigid-body inverse dynamics approach. In the simulation the angular momentum was changed by altering the body configuration immediately after take-off. The approach velocity and take-off angle were unchanged.
The initial body configuration of the jumper was changed in 0.1 radian steps up to +/$-$ 0.2 radians. Each change in body configuration was accompanied by a change in system angular velocity in order to have the simulated jumper land with an appropriate body configuration. The four paired body rotation (in radians) and angular velocity (in degree/s) changes were: 0.1/5.5; 0.2/11.0; $-$0.1/$-$5.5, $-$0.2/$-$11.0.
The simulations revealed that the changes in the initial conditions resulted in modifications in the angular momentum and the movement patterns of the arms and legs during the flight phase. Even though the appropriate land posture was approximated in each simulation, the distance jumped, as indexed by the distance covered by the heel of the take-off foot, varied with changes in initial body configuration.
Issue Date:1992
Rights Information:Copyright 1992 Kim, Ky-Hyoung
Date Available in IDEALS:2011-05-07
Identifier in Online Catalog:AAI9305580
OCLC Identifier:(UMI)AAI9305580

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