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The effects of underwater explosions on fish with techniques to mitigate those effects

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Title: The effects of underwater explosions on fish with techniques to mitigate those effects
Author(s): Keevin, Thomas M.
Doctoral Committee Chair(s): Schaeffer, David J.
Department / Program: Veterinary Clinical Medicine
Discipline: Veterinary Clinical Medicine
Degree Granting Institution: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Degree: Ph.D.
Genre: Dissertation
Subject(s): Biology, Anatomy Biology, Ecology Engineering, Civil Environmental Sciences Agriculture, Fisheries and Aquaculture
Abstract: This dissertation is divided into two broad areas of study. The first section focuses on the "state-of-the-science" of environmental effects of underwater explosive use. The literature review demonstrated a lack of standardization of methodologies. A number of methodological questions were examined to determine how they affect the ability to compare published studies and the validity of existing mortality models. The review showed that lack of standardization makes comparison or duplication of published studies difficult, if not impossible. Also, the existing models were inaccurate due to faulty methodologies.A number of these methodological questions were evaluated in the field using bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) as experimental animals. Chapter 2 used LD50 data to compare three published mortality quantification methods. The methods gave significantly different results. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed. In Chapter 3, the relationship between internal organ damage and explosive pressure waveforms was evaluated, and it was found that all previously published waveform components gave similar models. Chapter 4 found that mortality resulting from detonation of three high explosives (Pellite, Apex 260, and T-100 Two Component) had similar LD50 kill zones (m). Chapter 5 compares LD50 kill zone (m) values generated for bluegill in a shallow water environment with computed kill radii from the impulse strength model and energy flux density model. The effects of methodological inconsistencies on the accuracy of existing models when compared to field data are discussed.The second section focuses on natural resource agency permitting requirements and agency recommended mitigation measures. Chapter 6 reviews natural resource agency policies, permit requirements, and mitigation requirements concerning underwater explosive use. Chapter 7 evaluates the effectiveness of a bubble curtain in reducing the fish kill radius of underwater explosions. Bubble curtain use resulted in a significant reduction in mortality. Chapter 8 evaluates the effectiveness of small repelling charges in moving three species of radio-tagged fish. Repelling charges were not effective in moving fish out of kill zones from large blasts.
Issue Date: 1995
Type: Text
Language: English
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2142/21107
Rights Information: Copyright 1995 Keevin, Thomas M.
Date Available in IDEALS: 2011-05-07
Identifier in Online Catalog: AAI9543623
OCLC Identifier: (UMI)AAI9543623
 

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