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|Title:||The development of low-fat/low-salt frankfurters|
|Author(s):||Matulis, Richard John|
|Doctoral Committee Chair(s):||McKeith, Floyd K.|
|Department / Program:||Animal Sciences|
|Degree Granting Institution:||University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign|
|Subject(s):||Agriculture, Food Science and Technology|
|Abstract:||Commercially available frankfurters (N = 25) were evaluated in order to identify a range of sensory properties that were considered to be acceptable to consumers. Hardness, cohesiveness, saltiness, flavor intensity and off-flavor intensity values that were within one standard deviation of the mean were identified as acceptable values.
Three central composite designs (N = 17 treatment combinations--salt, fat and pH--or N = 12 treatment combinations--salt, fat and soy protein or carrageenan)--were used to determine the effects of fat, salt, pH, soy protein and carrageenan on sensory properties of frankfurters. Response surface techniques were used to identify a range of variable levels that could produce acceptable frankfurters. Desirable processing and flavor profile characteristics were achieved at pH 6.0. As salt levels increased, hardness, juiciness, saltiness and flavor intensity scores increased. As fat content increased, juiciness scores decreased due to the substitution of water for fat in the formulation. Increased fat content resulted in decreased off-flavor scores. Model predictions suggest that acceptable frankfurters can be manufactured with a minimum of 11.25% fat and 1.3% salt at pH 6.0.
The addition of soy protein to frankfurters increased hardness and off-flavor intensity and decreased juiciness, saltiness and flavor intensity scores. The addition of carrageenan to frankfurter formulations increased hardness scores at levels below 1.7% salt and decreased juiciness scores at levels above 15% fat. Saltiness, flavor intensity and off-flavor intensity scores increased with increasing levels of carrageenan.
The effects of different cooking methods (steep, microwave and broil) and final cooking temperatures (66$\sp\circ$C, 77$\sp\circ$C and 88$\sp\circ$C) on the physical and sensory properties of frankfurters were evaluated using 3 x 3 factorial design. Instron hardness, shear force, sensory hardness and saltiness scores increased and juiciness scores decreased with increased temperature when frankfurters were cooked by either microwaving or broiling. These effects were associated with evaporative moisture loss. Frankfurter density decreased with increased ultimate temperature and was attributed to increased volume of gas. Expressible moisture increased with increased ultimate temperature when frankfurters were steeped. Neither cooking procedures or ultimate temperature influenced protein denaturation as determined by gel electrophoresis or enzymatic digestion.
|Rights Information:||Copyright 1992 Matulis, Richard John|
|Date Available in IDEALS:||2011-05-07|
|Identifier in Online Catalog:||AAI9215854|