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Title:Heat transfer flow regimes of refrigerants in a horizontal-tube evaporator
Author(s):Wattelet, Jonathan Paul
Doctoral Committee Chair(s):Chato, John C.
Department / Program:Mechanical Science and Engineering
Discipline:Mechanical Engineering
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Subject(s):Engineering, Mechanical
Abstract:An experimental study of flow boiling heat transfer of refrigerants in a horizontal-tube evaporator was conducted. Measurements were made in several instrumented, horizontal copper tubes with inside tube diameters ranging from 7 to 11 mm and lengths ranging from 1.22 to 2.44 m using R-12, R-22, R-134a, and a 60%/40% azeotropic mixture of R-32/R-125.
The two main flow regimes found during objective and visual evaluation of the flow patterns during adiabatic and diabatic flow in smooth, horizontal tubes were wavy-stratified flow and annular flow. High speed pressure and differential pressure measurements were taken for a variety of mass flux and quality combinations, and were analyzed both spectrally and statistically. The normalized power spectral density of these measurements had sharp peaks near zero frequency, indicative of separated flows. Analysis of the standard deviation of pressure drop divided by the mean pressure drop showed that wavy-stratified flow occurred for values above 0.20, while annular flow occurred for values below 0.10.
For annular flow at low heat fluxes, convective boiling was the dominant mode of heat transfer. As heat flux increased, nucleate boiling enhanced the heat transfer coefficient, especially for low qualities and high reduced pressures. For wavy-stratified flows, convective boiling was diminished due to loss of available convective surface area, while nucleate boiling did not appear to be suppressed at higher qualities or lower heat fluxes. The heat transfer coefficients were well correlated using an asymptotic model, which combined the benefits of the "greater of the two" and superposition models for flow boiling heat transfer.
The heat transfer correlation and previously developed pressure drop correlations were combined in a computer program which simulated the two-phase portion of evaporators. This program was used to examine whether an optimum diameter existed for evaporators with fixed air-side resistances and refrigerant mass flow rates. The results revealed that over a wide range of diameters, the required length of the evaporator was relatively insensitive to the tube diameter, but the required surface area had a definite minimum.
Issue Date:1994
Rights Information:Copyright 1994 Wattelet, Jonathan Paul
Date Available in IDEALS:2011-05-07
Identifier in Online Catalog:AAI9522196
OCLC Identifier:(UMI)AAI9522196

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