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Title:Self-efficacy as a predictor of attrition for African-American and White client populations in treatment for poly-drug abuse
Author(s):Steinhoff-Thornton, Ronald
Doctoral Committee Chair(s):Rubinson, Laurna
Department / Program:Community Health
Discipline:Community Health
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Subject(s):Health Sciences, Mental Health
Health Sciences, Public Health
Abstract:The present study investigated the utility of self-efficacy measures to predict successful completion of treatment for poly-drug addiction in a sample of African American and White subjects of low socioeconomic status. A multi-component questionnaire packet containing a demographic portion, five open-ended intake questions, a 39-question intake self-efficacy questionnaire (SEQI), and a repeated 39-question discharge self-efficacy questionnaire (SEQD). The 39 items of the self-efficacy scale had an item-total correlation ranging from.58 to.81. Cronbach's alpha was.98. Test-retest reliability was high with r (46) =.612. The adapted instrument showed internal consistency and reliability equal to or even slightly greater than the one from which it was developed.
Association between self-efficacy scores and successful completion was significant, t (69) = $-$1.90, p =.030. When subgroups of clients were analyzed based on ethnic background and gender, only Caucasians, t (28) = $-$1.77, p =.044, and Caucasian males, t (18) = $-$1.84, p =.041, showed a significant association between self-efficacy scores and successful completion. No significant association was found for African Americans combined or by gender subgroups. Analysis of variants revealed no significant association between the self-efficacy variables and type of program or completer status, F (1,44) =.31; p =.579. The overall negative change in mean self-efficacy scores from intake to discharge was significant, F (1,44) = 19.66, $p<0.001.$ Pre- and posttests were highly correlated, r (46) =.612. The Association between completer status and self-efficacy change approached significance, F (1,44) = 2.72, p (2-tailed) =.016. Successful completers showed a larger decrease in self-efficacy from intake to discharge than noncompleters. A multiple analysis of variants was used to determine any differences in Self-Efficacy scores by ethnicity or gender. No interactions between the self-efficacy variable and sex (F(1,44) =.03; p =.862), race (F(1.44) =.22; p =.642), or sex by race (F(1,44) = 10; p =.750) was observed, meaning that the change in perceived self-efficacy from intake to discharge was parallel for African American males, African American females, Caucasian males and Caucasian females.
Findings point to significant differences in the relationship between perceived self-efficacy and treatment outcomes for populations in treatment for abuse of drugs other than alcohol and tobacco. It is suggested that these findings be further investigated before conventional self-efficacy measures are used with populations other than those for which they were designed.
Issue Date:1994
Rights Information:Copyright 1994 Steinhoff-Thornton, Ronald
Date Available in IDEALS:2011-05-07
Identifier in Online Catalog:AAI9512560
OCLC Identifier:(UMI)AAI9512560

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