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Title:A study of the human and financial resources utilized by agricultural research and extension systems worldwide and their relationship with agricultural development
Author(s):Bahal, Ram
Doctoral Committee Chair(s):Swanson, Burton E.
Department / Program:Education
Discipline:Education
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Degree:Ph.D.
Genre:Dissertation
Subject(s):Economics, Agricultural
Education, Agricultural
Sociology, General
Abstract:This worldwide study of agricultural research and extension systems was the first of its kind ever completed. The study had four objectives: (a) to determine the number of agricultural research and extension personnel worldwide and then, by using specific human resource measures, to determine the relationship of these variables with four agricultural development indicators, including total cereal yield, farmer income, agricultural income, and total fertilizer consumption; (b) to determine the quality (educational level) of extension personnel in different countries and then to relate this measure to selected agricultural development indicators; (c) to determine the level of agricultural research and extension expenditure worldwide and then to determine its relationship with the selected agricultural development indicators; and (d) to determine which of these human and financial resource variables were most useful, collectively, in explaining differences among each indicator.
Information about the human and financial resources among national agricultural extension systems was collected through the use of mail questionnaires, during October 1988 through December 1989 under the auspices of the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations from 114 countries. The measures of agricultural research investment were taken from the ISNAR Agricultural Research Indicator Series. Data used to compute the demographic and agricultural development indicators were taken from published secondary sources. These data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) for the microcomputer. Two sets of analysis was conducted; one set involved the worldwide data set, while the other used a subset of data involving only developing countries. Some of the significant findings of the study follow: (1) Human and financial resources of agricultural research and extension systems, collectively, were directly related with cereal yield, farmer income, and fertilizer consumption. (2) The relative number of extension workers and researchers in developing countries was found to be very low in contrast with the high income countries of North America, Europe, and Asia. The ratios of fewer farmers per researcher and per extension worker, individually, were significantly related with all four agricultural development indicators. (3) Extension workers' educational level was significantly related to all four indicators. (4) Higher levels of agricultural research and extension expenditure per farmer were significantly related to higher cereal yields, farmer income, and fertilizer consumption.
Based on the analysis of these data, the following recommendations were made: (1) The number and quality of agricultural extension workers and researchers in developing countries should be strengthened. (2) To increase agricultural productivity and development, agricultural research and extension expenditure per farmer should be increased in most developing countries.
Issue Date:1991
Type:Text
Language:English
URI:http://hdl.handle.net/2142/22142
Rights Information:Copyright 1991 Bahal, Ram
Date Available in IDEALS:2011-05-07
Identifier in Online Catalog:AAI9210734
OCLC Identifier:(UMI)AAI9210734


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