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Title:The brain-wave information detection (BID) system: A new paradigm for psychophysiological detection of information
Author(s):Farwell, Lawrence Ashley
Doctoral Committee Chair(s):Donchin, E.
Department / Program:Psychology
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Subject(s):Biology, Neuroscience
Psychology, Psychobiology
Psychology, Experimental
Psychology, Physiological
Abstract:This report describes and evaluates a new paradigm for the psychophysiological detection of concealed information. The conventional "lie detection" paradigm has traditionally relied upon measurements of the physiological concomitants of emotional arousal. This new paradigm measures the brain-wave manifestations of information-processing brain activity.
A new brain-wave information detection (BID) system was tested in 56 cases. In 100% of the cases where a determination was made, determinations were correct; 14% were indeterminate.
This research is based on the P300 component of the event-related brain potential, which is elicited by events that are relatively rare and relevant or noteworthy.
In each experiment, three types of short phrases were presented on a video screen for 300 msec at an inter-stimulus interval of 1550 msec. 17% of the stimuli were "target" stimuli, identified as such to subjects. Subjects were instructed to press one button in response to targets, and another button for all others. 66% were "irrelevant" stimuli, which had no particular significance for the subject. Interspersed with the irrelevant stimuli, and not identified in instructions to the subject, were "probe" stimuli which were relevant to a real or mock crime that had been in some cases committed by the subject. 17% were probes. For innocent subjects, probes were indistinguishable from irrelevants.
P300s were predicted in response to only the rare, relevant stimuli: targets for "innocent" subjects; targets and probes for "guilty" (knowledgeable) subjects.
One experiment tested subjects on mock crimes, one on minor crimes confessed to by subjects, and one on real-life activities of subjects that had not been discussed with them. Results were as predicted. "Guilty" or "innocent" determinations were made through a mathematical algorithm comparing brain-wave responses.
The history and scientific foundations of psychophysiological detection of concealed information are reviewed and evaluated. The theory and practice of the new and conventional paradigms are compared. The implications of this research for theories of the functional significance of event-related brain potentials are discussed.
Issue Date:1992
Rights Information:Copyright 1992 Farwell, Lawrence Ashley
Date Available in IDEALS:2011-05-07
Identifier in Online Catalog:AAI9236456
OCLC Identifier:(UMI)AAI9236456

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