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Title:Later Quaternary archaeological sequences in northern Tanzania
Author(s):Mehlman, Michael James
Doctoral Committee Chair(s):Keller, Charles M.
Department / Program:Anthropology
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Subject(s):Anthropology, Archaeology
Abstract:Excavations were undertaken at two deep-stratified rock shelters near Olduvai Gorge in order to ascertain the post-Acheulean archaeological sequence for the area. Shelter sequences document segments of time during the past 150,000 years and allow a new appreciation of the age and cultural associations of archaic Homo sapiens remains, the Eyasi crania, which are older than 150,000 years bp. A standardized typology was formulated and is applied to all lithic assemblages. Results indicate that a Sangoan Industry is associated with archaic Homo sapiens. The earliest rock shelter assemblages are Middle Stone Age and appear to have been made between 135,000 and 55,000 bp. Lithic industries intermediate between Middle and Later Stone Ages are present at each shelter, and they probably were made between 45,000 and 21,000 years bp. True Later Stone Age assemblages post-date 21,000 bp. The earliest pottery in the shelter sequences, Kansyore ware, is associated with a Later Stone Age industry and remains of wild animals dating to circa 5000 years bp. Pastoral Neolithic artifacts, including Narosura ware pottery, and domestic faunal remains are present at both shelters, but are best represented on several large settlement sites in the Lake Eyasi basin. Iron age pottery is among the youngest items from shelter deposits and burial cairns in the area. Some of these more recent items relate to the Early Iron Age (Lelesu ware), and others seem to relate to the Engaruka Complex, a later Iron Age culture noted for a combination of dry-wall stone works, irrigation-based agriculture and stock-keeping. Implications of this sequence are considered in a regional East African context.
Issue Date:1989
Rights Information:Copyright 1989 Mehlman, Michael James
Date Available in IDEALS:2011-05-07
Identifier in Online Catalog:AAI8924898
OCLC Identifier:(UMI)AAI8924898

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