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Title:Rapid multiplication of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz.) as a potential method to provide disease-free plant materials
Author(s):Tunya, Geoffrey Ondere
Doctoral Committee Chair(s):Splittstoesser, Walter E.; Skirvin, Robert M.
Department / Program:Agriculture, Plant Culture
Discipline:Agriculture, Plant Culture
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Subject(s):Agriculture, Plant Culture
Abstract:A major problem facing cassava production is availability of virus free stem cuttings, which are used for propagation. Research was conducted with various culture media to achieve rapid propagation of disease-free cassava (cv. Chilena) from shoot tip and nodal cuttings.
Shoot tip cuttings produced roots and grew vigorously as single shoots when cultured on half strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 2.5 $\mu$M indole butyric acid (IBA). The medium was designated Australian maintenance medium (AMM). Cultures from shoot tip explants on AMM were maintained for a period of 6 weeks.
Half strength MS supplemented with 1.0 $\mu$M 6-benzylamino purine (BAP) + 0.25 $\mu$M naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) designated Australian proliferation medium (APM) was ideal for nodal cuttings which produced callus, multiple shoots, but no roots. Multiple shoot formation increased with APM double phase medium (liquid medium overlaying a solid portion in a culture vessel (LIMO)).
Double phase of AMM and APM medium in reciprocal combinations showed that shoot tip explants formed roots and grew as single shoots when AMM was the solid phase. In contrast, nodal cuttings or shoot tips placed in APM solid phase developed callus with few roots.
When explants were cultured for 3 weeks in a double phase medium, with 0.05 $\mu$M gibberellic acid (GA$\sb3$) in LIMO and AMM solid phase, taller (3 cm), single shoots with $>$3.5 roots per explant were produced, while with APM and GA$\sb3$ cultures were shorter, multiple shoots but without roots. Double phase medium of either AMM or APM with GA$\sb3$ in the LIMO, induced $>$5 dissectable nodes vs 2 nodes with single phase AMM or APM + GA$\sb3$.
A shoot tip explant, placed on AMM medium with GA$\sb3$ in LIMO, produced 5.5 compared to 3.8 nodes when placed on AMM solid phase with 0.1 $\mu$M BAP + 0.25 $\mu$M NAA in LIMO. Nodal cuttings cultured in double phase media with GA$\sb3$ in LIMO produced more shoots, leaves and dissectable nodes than when BAP + NAA or IBA were in LIMO, and APM as solid phase. This response was enhanced by shaking nodal cuttings in an APM solution for 2 or 6 days prior to culturing.
Issue Date:1991
Rights Information:Copyright 1991 Tunya, Geoffrey Ondere
Date Available in IDEALS:2011-05-07
Identifier in Online Catalog:AAI9211017
OCLC Identifier:(UMI)AAI9211017

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