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Title:Effects of various salt purity levels on lipid oxidation and sensory characteristics of ground turkey and pork
Author(s):Bess, Kelsey N.
Advisor(s):Killefer, John
Department / Program:Animal Sciences
Discipline:Animal Sciences
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Subject(s):Lipid oxidation
Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)
Abstract:Salt use in meat products is changing. Consumers desire sea salt which may also contain trace metals and the government is demanding a reduction in sodium. Therefore a need exists to understand how varying impurity levels in salt affect meat quality. This study evaluated the effects of various salt preparations on lipid oxidation, sensory characteristics, protein extractability, and bind strength of ground turkey and pork. This study was a completely randomized design with 5 treatment groups and 6 replications in 2 species. Ground, turkey and pork meat was formulated into one hundred and fifty gram patties with sodium chloride (1%) containing varying amounts of metal impurities (copper, iron, and manganese). Samples were randomly assigned to frozen storage periods of 0, 3, 6, and 9 weeks. After storage, samples were packaged in PVC overwrap and stored under retail display for 5 days. Samples were evaluated for proximate analysis to ensure the fat content was similar for all of the starting material.Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were determined on raw and cooked samples to evaluate lipid oxidation. A trained six member sensory panel evaluated the samples at each storage period for saltiness, off flavor, and oxidized odor. Break strength was conducted using a Texture Analyzer and compared with salt soluble proteins (increasing salt concentrations) to evaluate protein extractability characteristics. Statistical analyses were conducted using the MIXED procedure of SAS within repeated measures over time where appropriate. No significant differences were observed among the salt treatments for raw and cooked TBARS when the control group was removed (P>0.05). Sensory panelists detected increased levels of off flavor and oxidized odor over the entire storage duration. Less force was required to break the patties from the control group when compared with the salt treatments (P<0.05). As salt concentration increased salt-soluble protein extraction increased, but there was no effect of salt type. Overall, no meaningful statistical differences among the various salt treatments were observed for all of the parameters evaluated for turkey and pork. Salt at a 1% inclusion rate containing varying levels of copper, iron, and manganese impurities in ground turkey thigh meat and ground pork served as a prooxidant. However, if a meat processor uses a 1% inclusion rate of salt in turkey and pork regardless of impurities included, it is unlikely that differences in shelf life or protein functionality would be observed.
Issue Date:2011-05-25
Rights Information:Copyright 2011 Kelsey N. Bess
Date Available in IDEALS:2011-05-25
Date Deposited:2011-05

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