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Effect of low glycinin soymilk on body composition, biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress and gut microbiota in overweight men

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Title: Effect of low glycinin soymilk on body composition, biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress and gut microbiota in overweight men
Author(s): Fernandez Raudales, Dina G.
Advisor(s): Gonzalez de Mejia, Elvira
Department / Program: Food Science & Human Nutrition
Discipline: Food Science & Human Nutrition
Degree Granting Institution: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Degree: M.S.
Genre: Thesis
Subject(s): Overweight men low glycinin soymilk adipokines inflammation oxidative stress beta-conglycinin body composition
Abstract: Several studies suggest that consumption of soy protein has positive effects on preventing obesity. Preliminary in vitro studies with β-conglycinin showed significant reduction in lipid accumulation and inflammatory parameters compared with glycinin. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of low glycinin soymilk (LGS) (48% β-conglycinin) with conventional soymilk (S) (28% β-conglycinin) and bovine milk (M) (0% β-conglycinin) on body composition, serum lipids, biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation and gut microbiota in overweight men. A randomized, double-blind study was conducted with 64 overweight men (BMI > 25; 18-45 years old). Subjects consumed 500 mL of each beverage daily for 3 months. Fasting blood samples, fecal samples, dual x ray absorptiometry scans, anthropometrics, lipid profile, plasma and serum biomarker analyses were executed at baseline and after 3 months. Glycemic index measurements were also performed. Total energy, total fat and total protein content were standardized among treatments. LGS and S contained similar levels of total isoflavones. Energy intake (p = 0.40), moderate physical activity (p = 0.21) and strenuous physical activity (p = 0.49) did not change during the study period. Oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL) was dramatically decreased after LGS consumption (-61%) in comparison to S (-36%, p = 0.0007) and M (-12%, p = 0.002). Serum antioxidant capacity increased significantly in LGS (18%, p = 0.001) and S (28%, p < 0.001) compared with M (-40%). The decrease in plasma interleukin-6 after 3 months of LGS (-22%, p = 0.025) and S (-26%, p = 0.014) consumption was significantly different from M. LGS consumption significantly increased plasma adiponectin (14%) compared with S (4%, p = 0.039) and M (-8%, p = 0.036). No effects were detected in BMI (p = 0.721), waist-hip ratio (WHR) (p = 0.454), weight (p = 0.836), triglycerides (p = 0.947), total cholesterol (p = 0.320), plasma leptin (p = 0.655), fatty acid synthase (FAS) (p = 0.976), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) (0.61) and C-reactive protein (CRP) (p = 0.959) among treatments. LGS did not alter bone mineral density (BMD) or t-scores (p>0.05). Changes in total phyla of microorganisms (p=0.36), Lactobacillus (p=0.06) and Bacteroides (p=0.27) were not significant among treatments. However, universal microbiota increased after three months with all treatments. Bifidobacteria changes among treatments were short to significant (p=0.06), showing a decrease with both soymilks consumption however general Actinobacteria increased with S (p=0.06) and LGS (p=0.07). Relative abundance of Bacteroidetes increased with soymilk consumption (LGS: 30%±11, p<0.0001; S: 29%±10, p=0.0001). Relative abundance of Firmicutes decreased after three months of LGS (-4%±2, p<0.0001) and S (-6%±2, p<0.0001) consumption. Dietary intakes of protein, fat, carbohydrates, dietary fiber, calcium, iron, phosphorus, potassium, caffeine, vitamins D, B12, K, and E were not influenced by LGS, S or M (p>0.05). However, dietary sodium (p=0.02) and vitamin C (p=0.0002) intakes were reduced with LGS consumption. LGS, S and M are low glycemic index products (41±7, 40±10 and 29±6 respectively). In conclusion, 3 months of LGS consumption, which is a low glycemic index food, inhibited a modest but significant accumulation of body fat, reduced inflammation and oxidative stress, and promoted positive intestinal microbiota composition in overweight men. Stronger effects of LGS consumption may be observed in combination of a low caloric diet and moderate physical activity.
Issue Date: 2011-05-25
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2142/24462
Rights Information: copyright 2011 Dina G. Fernandez Raudales
Date Available in IDEALS: 2011-05-25
2013-05-26
Date Deposited: 2011-05
 

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