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Studies of turbulent flows in continuous casting of steel with and without magnetic field

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Title: Studies of turbulent flows in continuous casting of steel with and without magnetic field
Author(s): Chaudhary, Rajneesh
Director of Research: Thomas, Brian G.
Doctoral Committee Chair(s): Thomas, Brian G.
Doctoral Committee Member(s): Vanka, Surya P.; Pantano-Rubino, Carlos A.; Uddin, Rizwan
Department / Program: Mechanical Sci & Engineering
Discipline: Mechanical Engineering
Degree Granting Institution: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Degree: Ph.D.
Genre: Dissertation
Subject(s): direct numerical simulation (DNS) large eddy simulation (LES) Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) Turbulence Magnetic Field Continuous Casting Nozzle Mold Electromagnetic Braking
Abstract: This thesis develops and tests various transient and steady-state computational models such as direct numerical simulation (DNS), large eddy simulation (LES), filtered unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) and steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) with and without magnetic field to investigate turbulent flows in canonical as well as in the nozzle and mold geometries of the continuous casting process. The direct numerical simulations are first performed in channel, square and 2:1 aspect rectangular ducts to investigate the effect of magnetic field on turbulent flows. The rectangular duct is a more practical geometry for continuous casting nozzle and mold and has the option of applying magnetic field either perpendicular to broader side or shorter side. This work forms the part of a graphic processing unit (GPU) based CFD code (CU-FLOW) development for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulent flows. The DNS results revealed interesting effects of the magnetic field and its orientation on primary, secondary flows (instantaneous and mean), Reynolds stresses, turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) budgets, momentum budgets and frictional losses, besides providing DNS database for two-wall bounded square and rectangular duct MHD turbulent flows. Further, the low- and high-Reynolds number RANS models (k-ε and Reynolds stress models) are developed and tested with DNS databases for channel and square duct flows with and without magnetic field. The MHD sink terms in k- and ε-equations are implemented as proposed by Kenjereš and Hanjalić using a user defined function (UDF) in FLUENT. This work revealed varying accuracies of different RANS models at different levels. This work is useful for industry to understand the accuracies of these models, including continuous casting. After realizing the accuracy and computational cost of RANS models, the steady-state k-ε model is then combined with the particle image velocimetry (PIV) and impeller probe velocity measurements in a 1/3rd scale water model to study the flow quality coming out of the well- and mountain-bottom nozzles and the effect of stopper-rod misalignment on fluid flow. The mountain-bottom nozzle was found more prone to the longtime asymmetries and higher surface velocities. The left misalignment of stopper gave higher surface velocity on the right leading to significantly large number of vortices forming behind the nozzle on the left. Later, the transient and steady-state models such as LES, filtered URANS and steady RANS models are combined with ultrasonic Doppler velocimetry (UDV) measurements in a GaInSn model of typical continuous casting process. LES-CU-LOW is the fastest and the most accurate model owing to much finer mesh and a smaller timestep. This work provided a good understanding on the performance of these models. The behavior of instantaneous flows, Reynolds stresses and proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) analysis quantified the nozzle bottom swirl and its importance on the turbulent flow in the mold. Afterwards, the aforementioned work in GaInSn model is extended with electromagnetic braking (EMBr) to help optimize a ruler-type brake and its location for the continuous casting process. The magnetic field suppressed turbulence and promoted vortical structures with their axis aligned with the magnetic field suggesting tendency towards 2-d turbulence. The stronger magnetic field at the nozzle well and around the jet region created large scale and lower frequency flow behavior by suppressing nozzle bottom swirl and its front-back alternation. Based on this work, it is advised to avoid stronger magnetic field around jet and nozzle bottom to get more stable and less defect prone flow.
Issue Date: 2011-08-25
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2142/26015
Rights Information: Copyright 2011 Rajneesh Chaudhary
Date Available in IDEALS: 2011-08-25
Date Deposited: 2011-08
 

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