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Title:Synthesis and structural stability of metal-organic frameworks
Author(s):Wu, Tianjiao
Director of Research:Masel, Richard I.
Doctoral Committee Chair(s):Girolami, Gregory S.
Doctoral Committee Member(s):Masel, Richard I.; Suslick, Kenneth S.; Murphy, Catherine J.
Department / Program:Chemistry
Discipline:Chemistry
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Degree:Ph.D.
Genre:Dissertation
Subject(s):Metal-organic frameworks
Synthesis
Water stability
Mechanical properties
Abstract:Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have attracted significant attention during the past decade due to their high porosity, tunable structures, and controllable surface functionalities. Therefore many applications have been proposed for MOFs. All of them however are still in their infancy stage and have not yet been brought into the market place. In this thesis, the background of the MOF area is first briefly introduced. The main components and the motifs of designing MOFs are summarized, followed by their synthesis and postsynthetic modification methods. Several promising application areas of MOFs including gas storage and separation, catalysis and sensing are reviewed. The current status of commercialization of MOFs as new chemical products is also summarized. Examples of the design and synthesis of two new MOF structures Eu(4,4′,4′′,4′′′-(porphine-5,10,15,20-tetrayl)tetrakis(benzoic acid))·2H2O∙xDMF and Zn4O(azobenzene-4,4’-dicarboxylic acid)3∙xNMP are described. The first one contains free-base porphyrin centers and the second one has azobenzene components. Although the structures were synthesized as designed, unfortunately they did not possess the expected properties. The research idea to use MOFs as template materials to synthesize porous polymers is introduced. Several methods are discussed to grow PMMA into IRMOF-1 (Zn4O(benzene-1,4-dicarboxylate)3, IR stands for isoreticular) structure. High concentration of the monomers resulted in PMMA shell after MOF digestion while with low concentration of monomers no PMMA was left after digestion due to the small iii molecular weight. During the study of this chapter, Kitagawa and co-workers published several papers on the same topic, so this part of the research was terminated thereafter. Many MOFs are reported to be unstable in air due to the water molecules in air which greatly limited their applications. By incorporating a number of water repelling functional groups such as trifluoromethoxy group and methyl groups in the frameworks, the water stability of MOFs are shown to be significantly enhanced. Several MOFs inculding Banasorb-22 (Zn4O(2-trifluoromethoxybenzene-1,4-dicarboxylate)3), Banasorb-24 (Zn4O(2, 5-dimethylbenzene-1,4-dicarboxylate)3) and Banasorb-30 (Zn4O(2-methylbenzene-1,4-dicarboxylate)3) were synthesized and proved to have isostructures with IRMOF-1. Banasorb-22 was stable in boiling water steam for one week and Banasorb-30’s shelf life was over 10 months under ambient condition. For comparison, IRMOF-1’s structure collapses in air after a few hours to several days. Although MOF is a very popular research area nowadays, only a few studies have been reported on the mechanical properties of MOFs. Many of MOF’s applications involve high pressure conditions, so it is important to understand the behavior of MOFs under elivated pressures. The mechanical properties of IRMOF-1 and a new MOF structure Eu2(C12N2O4H6)3(DEF)0.87(H2O)2.13 were studied using diamond anvil cells at Advanced Photon Source. IRMOF-1 experienced an irriversible phase transtion to a nonporous phase followed by amorphization under high pressure. Eu2(C12N2O4H6)3(DEF)0.87(H2O)2.13 showed reversible compression under pressure up to 9.08GPa.
Issue Date:2011-08-26
URI:http://hdl.handle.net/2142/26289
Rights Information:Copyright 2011 Tianjiao Wu
Date Available in IDEALS:2013-08-27
Date Deposited:2011-08


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