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Title:The flavor impact of G-Rg1 and G-Rb1 on the taste perception of ginseng
Author(s):Steadman, Rachel F.
Advisor(s):Lee, Soo-Yeun; Cadwallader, Keith R.
Department / Program:Food Science & Human Nutrition
Discipline:Food Science & Human Nutrition
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Ginsenoside Rg1 (G-Rg1)
Ginsenoside Rb1 (G-Rb1)
taste activity value
flavor activity value
Abstract:Ginseng has become a common ingredient used by makers of energy drinks who wish to infer that their product contains memory enhancing capabilities. As studies conducted on its main bioactive compounds (ginsenosides), have shown promise in producing not only medical advancements in memory, but also therapeutic benefits that current energy drink consumers expect. However, there is currently no published threshold value for ginseng, which is necessary to make accurate estimates of how much ginseng can be added to a product before imparting its bitter taste into product formulations. There are two ginsenosides present in ginseng that elicit all benefits expected from an energy drink as well as memory enhancement, ginsenoside Rb1 and Rg1 (G-Rg1 and G-Rb1). The main goal of this study was to identify the taste threshold and flavor threshold of ginseng, to identify the taste threshold of G-Rb1 and G-Rg1, and to identify their contribution to the overall taste of ginseng. Taste threshold tests were conducted using the R-index by the rating method on three different commercially available ginseng samples, two of which were white ginseng, and the third, red ginseng. The results of this study showed that it could be possible to add enough ginseng white ginseng or red ginseng into a single serving size beverage which contained a full day’s worth of ginseng needed for therapeutic benefits. Flavor thresholds were, then, determined using the R-index by the rating method on single white ginseng sample as well as on G-Rb1 and G-Rg1. The flavor threshold of ginseng showed that it was not possible to add enough ginseng in adequate amounts into a single beverage to reach therapeutic benefits ,which is contrary to what was seen using the taste thresholds. However, percent contribution of G-Rb1 and G-Rg1 to the taste activity value and flavor activity value of ginseng was found to be below 100%. This infers that it could be possible for companies to use either G-Rb1 or G-Rg1 in place of ginseng. Finally, data from the taste threshold and flavor threshold studies were compared, and it was found that panelists were more sensitive to ginseng when identifying the flavor threshold. This could either be caused by panelists relying on the aromatic compounds in ginseng as a cue to identify changes in concentration or that the nose-clips used in the taste threshold made panelists more susceptible to distractions and mental fatigue.
Issue Date:2011-08-26
Rights Information:Copyright 2011 Rachel Steadman
Date Available in IDEALS:2011-08-26
Date Deposited:2011-08

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