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Title:The spatial and temporal regulation of the transcriptome during plant development
Author(s):Li, Ying
Director of Research:Hudson, Matthew E.
Doctoral Committee Chair(s):Hudson, Matthew E.
Doctoral Committee Member(s):Clough, Steven J.; Ming, Ray R.; Moose, Stephen P.; Vodkin, Lila O.
Department / Program:Crop Sciences
Discipline:Crop Sciences
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
transcriptomic profiling
small RNA
Illumina short read sequencing
Abstract:The dicotyledon seedling undergoes organ-specific photomorphogenic development when exposed to light. The cotyledons open and expand, the apical hook opens and the hypocotyl ceases to elongate. Using the large and easily dissected seedlings of soybean (Glycine max cv. Williams 82), we show that genes involved in photosynthesis and its regulation dominate transcripts specific to the cotyledon, even in etiolated seedlings. Genes for cell wall biosynthesis and metabolism are expressed at higher levels in the hypocotyl, while examination of genes expressed at higher levels in the hook region reveals genes involved in cell division and protein turnover. The early transcriptional events in these three organs in response to a one-hour treatment of far-red light are highly distinctive. Not only are different regulatory genes rapidly regulated by light in each organ, but the early-responsive genes in each organ contain a distinctive subset of known light-responsive cis-regulatory elements. We detected specific light induced gene expression for the root phototropism gene RPT2 in the apical hook, and also phenotypes in Arabidopsis rpt2 mutants demonstrating that the gene is necessary for normal photomorphogenesis in the seedling apex. Significantly, expression of the RPT2promoter fused to a GUS reporter gene shows differential expression across the hook region. We also detect higher expression of AGO1 in the apical hook, a key player in small RNA regulatory pathway, and show that Arabidopsis ago1 mutants display an impaired photomorphogenesis in the seedling apex. Using next-gen sequencing, we show that many miRNAs are responsive to a one-hour treatment of far-red light. Most interestingly, we find that miR166 is specifically induced by one-hour far-red light in the convex side of apical hook. Overall, we conclude that organ-specific, light-responsive transcriptional networks are active early in photomorphogenesis in the aerial parts of dicotyledon seedlings. Another topic addressed in this thesis is heterosis. Heterosis, also known as hybrid vigor, refers to the phenomenon wherein a F1 hybrid produced from crossing two cultivars of the same species or two different species displays superior phenotypes compared to the inbred parents. Despite its practical applications and scientific importance, the molecular mechanism underlying heterosis is not completely understood. In recent decades, knowledge of the regulatory roles of small RNAs has greatly improved our understanding of many basic biological questions. We therefore applied a global small RNA profiling-by-sequencing approach to characterize the inheritance of small RNA expression patterns in Arabidopsis reciprocal hybrids. Two Arabidopsis thaliana accessions, Columbia and Landsberg erecta, were crossed reciprocally to produce hybrids. The small RNA expression patterns of both parents and two hybrids were compared. We find that the most common expression patterns for small RNAs in hybrid Arabidopsis are dominance for the parent with lower relative expression and additive between the parental expression. Arabidopsis Analysis of the genomic origin of the differentially expressed small RNAs suggested that they are mostly 24nt siRNA associated with maintaining genome stability and gene regulation. Interestingly, the transposon associated siRNAs are mostly additively inherited, whereas the gene-associated siRNAs are mainly down-regulated in hybrids. Overall, hybridization in Arabidopsis primarily leads to either no change or a reduction in the relative expression of siRNAs compared to their parents.
Issue Date:2011-08-26
Rights Information:Copyright 2011 Ying Li
Date Available in IDEALS:2013-08-27
Date Deposited:2011-08

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