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Soybean lunasin mediates colon carcinogenesis by inducing apoptosis and preventing outgrowth of metastasis

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Title: Soybean lunasin mediates colon carcinogenesis by inducing apoptosis and preventing outgrowth of metastasis
Author(s): Dia, Vermont P.
Director of Research: de Mejia, Elvira G.
Doctoral Committee Chair(s): Jeffery, Elizabeth H.
Doctoral Committee Member(s): de Mejia, Elvira G.; Chen, Hong; Cadwallader, Keith R.
Department / Program: Food Science & Human Nutrition
Discipline: Food Science & Human Nutrition
Degree Granting Institution: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Degree: Ph.D.
Genre: Dissertation
Subject(s): lunasin soybean apoptosis metastasis colon cancer
Abstract: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer worldwide. Various factors such as age, lifestyle and dietary patterns affect the risk of having CRC. Epidemiological studies showed a chemopreventive effect of soy consumption against CRC. However, which component(s) of soybean is associated with this reduced risk is not yet fully delineated. The objective of this research was to evaluate the anti-colon cancer potential of lunasin isolated from defatted soybean flour using in vitro and in vivo models of CRC. Lunasin was isolated from defatted soybean flour by a combination of different chromatographic and ultrafiltration techniques. The anti-colon cancer potential of lunasin was determined using different human colon cancer cell lines in vitro and a CRC liver metastasis model in vivo. Lunasin caused cytotoxicity to different human colon cancer cells with an IC50 value of 13.0, 21.6, 26.3 and 61.7 µM for KM12L4, RKO, HCT-116 and HT-29 human colon cancer cells, respectively. This cytotoxicity correlated with the expression of the α5 integrin on human colon cancer cells with a correlation coefficient of 0.78. The mechanism involved in the cytotoxic effect of lunasin was through cell cycle arrest and induction of the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. In KM12L4 human colon cancer cells, lunasin caused a G2/M phase arrest increasing the percentage of cells at G2/M phase from 12% (PBS-treated) to 24% (treated with 10 µM lunasin). This arrest was attributed to the capability of lunasin to increase the expression of cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p27. At 10 µM, lunasin increased the expression of p21 and p27 in KM12L4 colon cancer cells by 2.2- and 2.3-fold, respectively. Flow cytometric analysis showed that lunasin at 10 µM increased the percentage of cells undergoing apoptosis from 13.6% to 24.7%. This is further supported by fluorescence microscopic analysis of KM12L4 cells treated with 10 µM lunasin showing chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation. The mechanism involved is through modification of proteins involved in the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis in KM12L4 cells as 10 µM lunasin reduced the expression of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein by 2-fold and increased the expression of the pro-apoptotic proteins Bax, cytochrome c and nuclear clusterin by 2.2-, 2.1- and 2.3- fold, respectively. This led to increased expression and activity of the executioner of apoptosis, caspase-3 by 1.8- and 2.3-fold, respectively. This pro-apoptotic property of lunasin can be attributed to its capability to internalize into the cytoplasm and nucleus of colon cancer cells 24 h and 72 h after treatment, respectively. In addition, lunasin mediated metastasis of colon cancer cells in vitro by inhibiting the focal adhesion kinase activation thereby reducing expression of extracellular regulated kinase and nuclear factor kappa B and finally inhibiting migration of colon cancer cells. In KM12L4 colon cancer cells, 10 µM lunasin resulted in the reduction of phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase and extracellular regulated kinase by 2.5-fold, resulting in the reduced nuclear translocation of p50 and p65 NF-κB subunits by 3.8- and 1.4-fold, respectively. In an in vivo model of CRC liver metastasis, daily intraperitoneal administration of lunasin at 4 mg/kg body weight resulted in the inhibition of KM12L4 liver metastasis as shown by the reduction of the number of liver metastases from 28 (PBS-treated) to 14 (lunasin-treated, P = 0.047) and reduction in tumor burden as measured by liver weight/body weight from 0.13 (PBS-treated) to 0.10 (lunasin-treated, P = 0.039). Moreover, lunasin potentiated the anti-metastatic effect of the chemotherapeutic drug oxaliplatin given at 5 mg/kg body weight twice per week. Lunasin and oxaliplatin combination resulted in a more potent inhibition of outgrowth of KM12L4 cell metastases to the liver reducing the number of liver metastases by 6-fold and reducing the tumor burden in the liver by 3-fold when compared to PBS-treated group. This can be attributed by the capability of lunasin and oxaliplatin to reduce expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen in liver-tumor tissue as measured by immunohistochemical staining. The results of this research for the first time demonstrated the anti-colon cancer potential of lunasin isolated from defatted soybean flour which might contribute to the chemopreventive effect of soybean in CRC as seen in different epidemiological studies. In conclusion, lunasin isolated from defatted soybean flour mediated colon carcinogenesis by inducing apoptosis and preventing outgrowth of metastasis. We suggest that the results of this research serve as a basis for further study on the chemopreventive effect of lunasin against CRC and a possible adjuvant role for lunasin in therapy of patients with metastatic CRC.
Issue Date: 2011-08-26
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2142/26357
Rights Information: © 2011 Vermont Punongbayan Dia
Date Available in IDEALS: 2013-08-27
Date Deposited: 2011-08
 

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