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Title:Linear allylic C-H oxidation: methods and utility
Author(s):Vermeulen, Nicolaas
Director of Research:White, Maria C.
Doctoral Committee Chair(s):White, Maria C.
Doctoral Committee Member(s):Hergenrother, Paul J.; Moore, Jeffrey S.; Nuzzo, Ralph G.
Department / Program:Chemistry
Discipline:Chemistry
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Degree:Ph.D.
Genre:Dissertation
Subject(s):C-H Oxidation
Catalytic Palladium oxidation
Abstract:The installation of complex functional groups through the use of C-H oxidation methodologies has the potential to dramatically increase the efficiency of synthetic sequences with respect to resources, time and overall steps to key intermediates. This work describes methods that target complex intermediates to show the scope, wide functional group tolerance, and streamlining utility of our allylic C-H oxidation chemistry. In general, functional groups are installed in complex molecules through the advent of sequential C-C bond forming reactions. This chemistry is not only well known, but has been employed for decades, resulting in the wide array of reaction conditions and electrophile/nucleophile pairs seen in the literature today. In contrast, the deliberate installation of functional groups through unactivated C-H bonds represents a new strategy for the construction of complex intermediates. Previously, we have reported that the use -olefins, as an inert and readily available functional group handle, allows for the direct installation of allylic acetates via a Pd(II) catalysis. A clever implementation of this strategy shows its utility and ability to streamline the synthesis of known molecules (e.g. L-galatose). Further exploration of this reaction manifold gives rise to a linear allylic oxidation method requiring only coupling levels of almost any carboxylic acid to render linear (E)-allylic esters. A significant problem with the Pd(II) allylic C-H oxidation reaction is the need for super-stoichiometric amounts of the oxidant benzoquinone. By employing a Co(II)Salophen catalyst, hydroquinone (the byproduct of benzoquinone oxidation) can be converted to benzoquinone using only molecular oxygen as terminal oxidant. This second catalytic system was found to be compatible with our allylic C-H oxidation reaction conditions and allows for the use of only catalytic amounts of the palladium-specific oxidant, thereby greatly reducing reaction waste. This process appears to be a general solution and can also be employed with the intera- and inter-molecular allylic C-H amination reactions developed in our lab.
Issue Date:2012-02-01
URI:http://hdl.handle.net/2142/29415
Rights Information:Copyright 2011 Nicolaas Vermeulen
Date Available in IDEALS:2014-02-01
Date Deposited:2011-12


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