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Multi-axial Active Isolation for Seismic Protection of Buildings

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Title: Multi-axial Active Isolation for Seismic Protection of Buildings
Author(s): Chang, Chia-Ming
Advisor(s): Spencer, Billie F.
Contributor(s): Elnashai, Amr S.; Bergman, Lawrence A.; Song, Junho
Department / Program: Civil & Environmental Eng
Discipline: Civil Engineering
Degree Granting Institution: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Degree: Ph.D.
Genre: Doctoral
Subject(s): base isolation active control earthquakes bi-directional excitations hybrid simulation experimental verification shake table testing multi-axial servo hydraulic actuators H2/LQG control algorithm advanced instrumentation
Abstract: Structural control technology has been widely accepted as an effective means for the protection of structures against seismic hazards. Passive base isolation is one of the common structural control techniques used to enhance the performance of structures subjected to severe earthquake excitations. Isolation bearings employed at the base of a structure naturally increase its flexibility, but concurrently result in large base displacements. The combination of base isolation with active control, i.e., active base isolation, creates the possibility of achieving a balanced level of control performance, reducing both floor accelerations as well as base displacements. Many theoretical papers have been written by researchers regarding active base isolation, and a few experiments have been performed to verify these theories; however, challenges in appropriately scaling the structural system and modeling the complex nature of control-structure interaction have limited the applicability of these results. Moreover, most experiments only focus on the implementation of active base isolation under unidirectional excitations. Earthquakes are intrinsically multi-dimensional, resulting in out-of-plane responses, including torsional responses. Therefore, an active isolation system for buildings using multi-axial active control devices against multi-directional excitations must be considered. The focus of this dissertation is the development and experimental verification of active isolation strategies for multi-story buildings subjected to bi-directional earthquake loadings. First, a model building is designed to match the characteristics of a representative full-scale structure. The selected isolation bearings feature low friction and high vertical stiffness, providing stable behavior. In the context of the multi-dimensional response control, three, custom-manufactured actuators are employed to mitigate both in-plane and out-of-plane responses. To obtain a high-fidelity model of the active isolation systems, a hybrid identification approach is used which combines the advantages of the lumped mass model and nonparametric methods. Control-structure interaction (CSI) is also included in the identified model to further enhance the control authority. By employing the H2/LQG control algorithm, the controllers for the hydraulic actuators promise high performance and good robustness. The active isolation is found to possess the ability to reduce base displacements, as well as producing comparable accelerations over the passive isolation. The proposed active isolation strategies are validated experimentally for a six-story building tested on the six degree-of-freedom shake table in the Smart Structures Technology Laboratory at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
Issue Date: 2012-02-06
Genre: thesis
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2142/29690
Rights Information: Copyright 2011 Chia-Ming Chang
Date Available in IDEALS: 2012-02-06
Date Deposited: 2011-12
 

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