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Title:Salt concentration and species affects protein extractability and processed meat characteristics
Author(s):Keever, Brianna
Advisor(s):Dilger, Anna C.
Department / Program:Animal Sciences
Discipline:Animal Sciences
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Subject(s):salt-soluble protein
Abstract:Excessive sodium consumption is one contributor to high blood pressure and cardiovascular disease, and the Institute of Medicine has recommended that salt levels be reduced in food, including processed meats. As such, it is critical to understand the interaction of salt level and meat species with regards to characteristics of further processed meat. Salt-soluble protein extraction, important in forming meat emulsions, is dependent on several factors including species of protein source. As such, the purpose of our first study was to quantify the amount of salt-soluble proteins in various muscles of three species commonly used in meat products - beef, pork, and chicken. Pork and beef serratus ventralis (dark) and semitendinosus (light) muscles, and chicken pectoralis major muscles (light) and the entire thigh (dark) were used. Samples were analyzed for salt-soluble protein content at salt (NaCl) concentrations ranging from 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 2%, 2.5%, 3%, to 3.5%. Overall, there was an increase in extractable salt-soluble protein content as the salt concentration increased. The interaction of species and salt showed all species were different (P < 0.05) from one another when compared at the same salt concentration when corrected for fat and moisture content with chicken showing the greatest extractability. In chicken, extractable salt-soluble protein was increased (P < 0.01) in light muscles compared with dark muscles. In industry, most processed products include 1.5-3.5% salt, and at these levels we have demonstrated that chicken meat had more salt-soluble proteins to aid in the processing of meat products. Given the advantage of chicken overall and in chicken light muscles compared with dark muscles, the purpose of the second study was to evaluate characteristics of products manufactured from pectoralis major muscle (light) and the entire thigh (dark) of chicken. The study was designed as a complete randomized design in a 2x4 factorial arrangement with factors of muscle type (light and dark) and salt concentration (0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, and 2%). Bologna was manufactured and analyzed for salt-soluble protein content, proximate analysis, cooking yield, pH, Minolta L*, and binding strength. In thigh muscle bologna batches, raw and cooked moisture content, as well as cooked fat content, was increased over breast muscle batches (P < 0.01). Increased retention of moisture in thigh muscle bolognas contributed to improved cooked yields compared to breast muscle bolognas (P = 0.01). We were especially interested in whether characteristics of low-salt (≤ 1%) light muscle bolognas were similar or superior to higher salt (≥ 1.5%) dark muscle bolognas. Therefore, we used a single degree of freedom contrasts to compare these products. Low salt breast bolognas exhibited slightly higher (0.05 percentage units) salt-soluble protein extractability (as a percentage of crude protein) compared with higher salt thigh meat bolognas. The increase in salt-soluble protein content, however, was not reflected in a higher break strength value for low-salt breast bologna compared to high-salt thigh bologna (P < 0.01). Hardness increased in low-salt breast bologna compared to high-salt thigh bologna (P < 0.01). Low salt breast bologna showed acceptable processing characteristics and textural properties, therefore it can be used to manufacture low salt products.
Issue Date:2012-02-06
Genre:Dissertation / Thesis
Rights Information:Copyright 2011 Brianna Keever
Date Available in IDEALS:2012-02-06
Date Deposited:2011-12

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